By 1917 Bolsheviks had nealry all of Russia under the Soviet, what did theynot have?
- The countryside in which peasants suppported SRs
By end of 1917, why Lenin worried for the upcoming elections of the Constituent Assembly?
- It appeared SRs would win more votes than Bolsheivks, if this happened they would have to hand over Sovnarkom to their rivals
What did Lenin do to adress the promises he made in April Thesis?
- Initially issued a set of Nov Decrees then Dec Dcerees
What Decrees idd Lenin pass right after Oct Rev in Nov?
- The Peace Decree:
All nations were to negotiate for peace - ended the war with Germany
- The Land Decree:
All land owned by the Tsar, Church and other landowners was distributed to the peasants - made the Bolsheviks popular with the peasants
- The Workers’ Decree:
Gave the workers control over the factories and introduced an 8-hour working day
How did the elections at Consituent assembly on Nov 1917 go?
- SRs gained the most seats
How did Lenin dissolve the Constituent Assembly?
- He first pulbished Pravda articlethat there was no need for Constituent assembly as soviet was there
- When Assembly met in Jan 1918, SRs and Lenin made power of assembly limited, so Lenin wanted to dissolve it
- He gave orders to dissolve it and many died, 100 that supported Assembly, leaders of Cadets - removing threat to Bolshevik Party
What was one of Lenin’s gretest concerns if war was to continue?
- The army would not be able to support him especially at a crucial time after Oct Rev
How did Russia leave the War?
Trotsky negotiated with Germany. The Germans set a high price due to their knowledge of Lenin’s desperation. Trotsky argued against this, but Lenin was desperately and insisted they accepted.
In Dec 1917, they signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk ending the war with Germany.
Numbers of Treaty of Brest-Litovsk?
Russia lost 25% of its population, 75% of its iron and coal and 50% industry to Germany. This made many Russians angry.
Why did Lenin sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk?
- He feared a civil war and didn’t want to fight both Germany and a civil war
- He believed that Germany would soon be defeated in the war and the last distributed back to Russia
- He had to keep his promise to leave the war - this had failed the Provisional Government before
What were some reaons for Bolshevik opposition in 1918/
- Economic and social hardship
- Dissolution of Constituent assembly
- Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
What was the economic and social hardship Russia faced like post Oct rev?
6 moths after Oct Rev:
- Bolseviks failed to deal with food shortages, especially in towns and cities
- March 18, bread ration reached lowest 50g a day
- Hunger drove wokrers out of cities,June 1918 workforce shrunk by 60% population declined by 2-3 mil
How did Bolshevik reforms create oppostion?
- Decree on Land, made nobles, landlords and churches lose land- they ended up supporting whites
- Decree on Peace, alienated nationalists wanting to continue war and not lose land to Germany
- Decree on Banking, banks and buisness men who lost money supported whites
Who did the Whites consist of?
- SRs wanting Constituent assemlby back
- Former Tsarists wanting Tsar back(Kornilov, Denikin)
- Czech Legion
Why did Foreign powers helpthe Whites?
Ex allies intervened becuase
- Lenin withdrew from war signing treaty of Brest-Litovsk
- Bolsheviks cancelled Loan payments to Allies of Russia
- They feared communism would spread to their countries
How did the beginning of the Civil War go?
- Red’s suffered defeat anfter defeat in 1918 and early 1919 - were attacked all sides by Whites - with experienced Leaders
- But won many during 1920
Who were the main generals of the White Army, who supported them and where did they attack?
- General Yudenich, British support attacked north-west and threatened petrograd
- General Deniken, supported by French, threatened south
- Admiral Kolchack, British support attacked from East
What amrmistice did Red army secure andwhy was it helpful?
- Armistice with Estonian forces promising to recognise it as an Estonian independence
- With no Estonian support Yudenich army disssolved making Reds win
What were the effects of the civil war?
- Russia left in ruins, especially economically. Transport system near collapse so factories couldn’t get the materials required and had to shut
- Grain production low, not enough food so some peasants held it, widespread famine caused more deaths than war
- 100s of thousands died from diseases - typhus, cholera.
- Increasing opposition to war communism
What were the main strengths for the Bolsheviks and the reason for their victory?
- Leadership of Lenin and Trotsky
- Control of railways
- Widespread support from peasants by propaganda and thier more negative policies than war communism
How did leadership of Lenin help Reds win?
- Inspirational figure, provided direction and leadership
- Rutheless in conducting war and use of war communism with Cheka
How did Cheka and War Communisn help Reds win?
- War Communism meant ruthless discipline enfrced in strict food rationing, largest rations going to army
- Cheka terrified citizens so they obeyed and anyone thinking of helping whites would bekiled
How did Trotsky helps Reds win war?
Reds had 1 commanded, Trostky appointed Commar of war March 1918. To turn army into effective force he:
- Restored conscription of men 18-40, to raise a large army, 5 mil troops
- Reintroduced officer structure, brought back thousands of former Tsarist officers, now poor, to ensure loyalty families were hostage
- Promoted talented soldiers that didn’t make it in noble Tsarist regime - these became best Generals
- visted front lines using railway and gave many sppeches boosting morale
- Instilled tough discipline if anyone was to flee they would be executed via firing squad
What were the weaknesses of the Whites?
- Lack of unity
- Poor leadership
- Geographical speed
- Foreign intervention
How was the lack of unity a weakness for the whites?
- Made ofdifferent politic parties they didnt share a politcal aim e,g, Tsarism or republicanism
- White generals didn’t work together, this helped Trotsky as they could deal with each white army at a time and weren’t attakced from all fronts
How was poor leadership a weakness for the whites?
- Several cruel leaders like Tsarist regime, therefore soldiers weren’t loyal
- High levels of indiscipline, many officers were under alcohol or cocaine
How was geographic spread a weakness for the whites?
Whites were scattered round edges of central area
- Made communication hard, miving poeple and weapons
- Hard to coordinate attacks of many whte armies
- Whites didn’t control railways, had to transport supplies and men using poor roads
When was the Cheka set up and how did it help?
- In Dec 1917, it was repsonsible for dealing with law and order, and political opposition to theBolsheviks
- Ensured loyalty to reigme throigh fear
- killed around 300k
- helped ensure supplies provided by workers and peasants in war communism
What was the Red Terror, when and why did it happen?
- After attempted Lenin assasination, in end Aug 1918, Cheka started Red Terror, in which those thought of workign against the rev were arrested, tortured and executed
How many russians killed inn Red Terror/
- 50k between 1918 and 1921
How did the Red Terror help Lenin establish a Dictatorship?
- Numerous storis of its cruelty instilled feare.g in Poltava peasants that opposed them were burnt at the stake
- Fear was around Russia and Bolshevik party so it was difficult to criticise the government
- So Cheka alllowed Lenin to retain his power
How was Political centralisation achieved through a way not involving the Red Terror?
- Central control through Politburo and economic centralisation
What was the role of the Politburo?
Communist party controlled all levelsof government, senior memebers, key officials
- Politburo was leading decision making body of communist party, set up in 1919 - it made all key decisions
- All major decisions under Lenin were made by it
Why was war communism introduced(basic idea)?
- As a method of controlling economy to make sure economic life was focused on supplying the Red Army
What were the reasons war communism was introduced?
- Peasants wanted to keep land they were giiven, but unwilinf to sell food they grew; Lenin wanted to control supply of food; prices rose and infltion occured
- Severe shortages of food; Bolsheviks had to guarantee supplies for Red army inCivil War
What were some features of war communism?
- Rationing of foodduring shortages
- Private trading banned, Pesants had to surrender their excess produce instead ofsellling for profit, if not obeyed requsion squads orfered to seize food
- Factories with more than 10 workers nationalised, State owned factories and decided how mch was produced and could tell workers where to wokr
What did War Communism lead to for peasants?
- Peasants didn’t wanto give food away, so they grew lessand bred less, leading to agricultural output fall
- This led Lenin to send bolsheviks for food requisitioning by force, peasants resisted feircly
- Lenin then tried to turn other peasants on those reufsing to hand crops - calling them Kulaks
- Bolsheviks took grain needed for the next crop, resulting in a terrible famine 1920-21, around 7 mil ppl died as a result
What was the Kronstadt Mutiny?
- March 1921, greatest challenge over war communism
- Rebellion of sailors at naval base Kronstadt, thousands protested at events in Russia,objected to way communist party was taking power away from soviets
What demands did sailors make in Kronstadt Mutiny?
- FOS and press granted to workers and peansants
- All political prisoners belonging to socialist parties to be released
What was the reaction of the commuist party to Kronstadt Mutiny?
- Lenin wanted no opposition and decided to stop protests, demands came as shock as some were form his loyal supporters
- Trotsky ordred an attack using 60k troops over 3 weeks 20k were killed, survivors executedby Cheka or put in a gulag
What did Lenin do after the Kronstadt Mutiny was over?
- He realised he had to change the policy, Kronstadt mutinywas like a wake up call for him
- 1921, Lenin left war communism and introduced New Economic Policy
What were the key feature of the NEP?
- Peasants still give fixed amount of grain to gov, bu call sell surplus for profit
- Peasants who increased food production would pay less tax
- Facories less than 20 workers given back to owners, consumer goods could be produced and sold
- Key inustries coal, steel under state control
What were the effects of NEP?
- Food in market and growing trade in other goods
- ‘Nepmen’, private traders appeared, bought prouce and took it into city market, 1923 Nepmen handled 3/4 of trade
- Peasants benefitted, recovery from famine in villages, able to make money from Nepmen
What were the shortcomings of NEP?
- When Lenin died 1924, debate became fierce, Trotsky insulted it it and didnt like it, felt it was degeneration
- People criticisednew class created by it, Nepmen and Kulaks - they were against idelas of Oct Rev
- Corruption and crime flourished
What happened to Women between 1918-1924?
- New divorce law made divorce easier, but mid 1920s USSR had highest divorce rate, many woman abandoned by men after pregnanacy
- Employment rate decreased rapidly aftermen came back from war, were given unksilled jobs
How was education by 1919?
Each child recieved 9 yrs universal education
- Authority of teachers diminished
- Lack of money from NEP meant universal school was abandoned
- Pioneers for U15
- Komsomol for 15- early 20s, used as propaganda for communist party