PSYC4022 Testing and Assessment Week Six Neuropsychology Flashcards Preview

PSYC4022 Testing and Assessment > PSYC4022 Testing and Assessment Week Six Neuropsychology > Flashcards

Flashcards in PSYC4022 Testing and Assessment Week Six Neuropsychology Deck (102):
1

A neuron

A nerve cell

2

Central Nervous System

The brain and spinal cord

3

Peripheral Nervous System

The neurons that convey messages to and from the rest of the body

4

Selectively permeable

Selective about what it lets in or out

5

Resting Potential

Starting point for the neuron

6

Na+

Sodium

7

K

Potassium

8

Refractory Period

After the cell fires, the chemical levels bounce down to lower than where it first started

9

Synapse

Junction

10

Lesions

Change to tissue resulting from injury or infection (Physical or Chemical). Will manifest themselves in various behaviour deficits

11

Focal

At one site

12

Diffuse

Scattered across sites

13

Contralateral Control

Each hemisphere of the brain receives information from the opposite side of the brain and controls motor responses on the opposite side of the body.

14

Nucleus

The brain of the cell

15

Dendrite

Carries information to the cell

16

Cell Body

Around the nucleus

17

Axon

Cell that connects the Cell Body to the Axon Terminal

18

Myelin Sheath

The wrapping around the Axon

19

Node of Ranvier

Pauses between the Axons

20

Axon Terminal

On the other side of the Axon sting from the Cell Body

21

A Neuron2

An excitable cell that processes and transmits information by electrochemical means

22

Hyperpolarisation

The electrical gradient of the neuron continues to drop until the charge inside is considerably less than the outside

23

Axon Hillcock

The neck of the cell body

24

Synapses

Communication between neurons occurs at specialised junctions called synapses

25

Presynaptic Axon Terminal

Synaptic Transmission begins when the nerve impulse reaches the presynaptic axon terminal

26

Acetylcholine

A neurotrasmitter that relaxes heart muscles, but tightens skeletal muscles

27

Forebrain

The largest part of the brain, mostly made up of cerebrum

28

Cerebrum

Two hemispheres, connected by the corpus callosum

29

Neurologically Intact Individual

Hemispheres compliment one another

30

Hard Sign

A definite indicator of neurological deficit e.g. cranial nerve damage as indicated by neuroimaging

31

Soft Sign

An indicator suggestive of neurological deficit e.g. an apparent inability to accurately copy a stimulus figure when attempting to draw it

32

Name 7 Parts of a Brain Cell

Cell Body
Axon
Nucleus
Dendrite
Myelin Sheath
Axon Terminal
Node of Ranvier

33

Name 3 Neurotransmitters

Dopamine
Seratonin
GABA

34

The brain is divided into 4 Lobes. What are they?

1. Frontal
2. Occipital
3. Parietal
4. Temporal

35

The Frontal Lobe contains areas for...

1. Ordering information and sorting stimuli (concentration, attention, planning)

36

If the frontal Lobe is damaged, it may affect the following areas;

1. Problem-Solving
2. Abstract thinking
3. Concept Formation
4. Foresight
5. Impairments in Concentration/ Attention
6. Gross and Fine Motor
7. Speech

37

What is the Occipital Lobe responsible for?

Visual Perception

38

If the occipital lobe is damaged, we might see impairments in which functions?

1. Blindness to all or part of the visual field
2. Deficits in Object Recognition
3. Integration of Symbols
4. Visual Scanning
5. Imagery Recall

39

The Parietal Lobe contains areas for;

1. Sense of touch and bodily position

40

If the parietal lobe is damaged, we might see impairments in;

1. Deficits in touch
2. Disorganisation
3. Self-Perception

41

The Temporal Lobes are responsible for;

1. Auditory Reception
2. Processing Visual Information

42

If the temporal lobes are damaged, we might see deficits in;

1. Sound Discrimination
2. Sound Comprehension
3. Sound Recognition
4. Music Appreciation
5. Voice Recognition
6. Auditory/ Visual Memory Storage

43

There are 3 main parts of the brain discussed here. What are they?

1. Cerebellum
2. Hypothalamus
3. Lymbic System

44

The Cerebellum is responsible for;

1. regulating breathing, balance and posture

45

If the cerebellum is damaged, it may cause deficits to;

1. Fine Motor Control.
2. Coordination Problems

46

The Hypothalamus is responsible for;

the regulation of eating, drinking, body temperature, sex and emotion (sensitive to fight or flight conditions)

47

If the hypothalamus is damaged, it might cause deficits in;

1. Uncontrolled eating or drinking,
2. Mild Alterations in Mood State

48

The Lymbic System is responsible for;

Expression of Emotions (amygdala, cingulate cortex, hippocampus)

49

If the Lymbic System is damaged, it may cause alterations to;

emotional behaviour (even personality e.g. Phineas Gage)

50

What are 3 disorders that may be caused by damage to the Cerebral Cortex?

Depression
Huntington's Disease
Mania

51

What are 2 disorders that might be caused by damage to the Cerebrum?

Epilepsy
Stroke

52

What are 3 disorders that might be caused by damage to the Frontal Lobe

Alzheimer's Disease
Depression
Mania

53

Name 1 disorder you might develop as a result of damage to your parietal lobe?

Alzheimer's Disease

54

Name 3 disorders you might develop as a result of damage to your temporal lobe?

Mania, Alzheimer's Disease and Depression

55

Name 1 Disorder you might develop as a result of damage to your Lymbic system

Mania

56

Name 1 Disease associated with damage to the amygdala

Depression

57

Name 2 Disorders associated with damage to the Hippocampus

Mania
Alzheimer's Disease

58

The substantia Nigra is within which part of the brain?

Midbrain

59

Damage to the substantia nigra is associated with which disease?

Parkinson's Disease

60

Damage to the Hindbrain is associated with which brain dysfunction?

Stroke

61

Which 3 parts of the brain make up the Hindbrain?

Pons
Medulla Oblongata
Cerebrum

62

Damage to the Pons is associated with...?

Sleep Disorders, Stroke

63

There are 3 sub-specialties of Neuropsychology. What are they?

1. Forensic
2. Geriatric
3. Paediatric

64

There are 4 approaches to Neuropsychology. What are they?

1. Clinical
2. Cognitive
3. Neuroimaging
4. Connectionist

65

There are 3 phases of Neuropsychological Testing. What are they?

1. History
2. Interviewing
3. Testing

66

There are 4 categories of Neuropsychological Testing. What are they?

1. Memory
2. Intelligence
3. Language
4. Executive Function

67

Name 2 Intelligence Tests discussed in Lectures

1. WAIS
2. WISC

68

Name 3 Memory Tests discussed in Lecture Notes

1. WMS
2. Doors and People (Verbal and Visual Recognition and Recall)
3. RAVLT (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test)

69

Name 5 Tests of Executive Function discussed in Lecture Note

1. WCST
2. Clock Drawing Task
3. Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure
4. Trail Making Test
5. Tower of Hanoi

70

Name 1 Language Test discussed in the Lecture Notes

Boston Naming Test

71

Name 1 General Test Discussed in the Lecture Notes

Mini Mental Status Exam

72

Name 5 Tests for Perceptual/ Motor Ability discussed in the Lecture Notes

1. Jigsaw Puzzles
2. Ishihara (1964) Test for Colour blindness
3. Wepman Auditory Discrimination Test
4. Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency
5. Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test

73

Name 1 Physical Exam discussed in the Lecture Notes

1. Stand Still, Finger-Nose, Finger Localisation, Finger Wiggle/ Finger Tapping

74

Name 7 Neuro-imaging techniques

1. MRI
2. fMRI
3. SPECT
4. CT
5. PET
6. EMG
7. EEG

75

There are 7 confounds in memory assessment. They are...

1. Tiredness
2. Thought Disorders
3. Anxiety and Stress
4. Physical Issues (Praxis)
5. Depression
6. ADD/ADHD
7. Drugs

76

The resting potential of the cell is slightly...

negative

77

When the cell is resting, the Sodium gates are...

closed

78

When the cell is resting, the Potassium gates are...

almost closed

79

Sodium flows into the cell. This is called....

Depolarisation

80

The electrical gradient continues to drop until the charge inside is considerably less than the outside. This is called...

Hyperpolarisation

81

How many Sub-tests are there for the WMS-IV?

11

82

How many Sub-tests of the WMS-IV are used to derive the Index Scores?

6

83

How many batteries are their for the WMS-IV?

2

84

What are the age brackets for the 2 WMS-IV Batteries?

16-69
65-90

85

What are the 5 Index Scores for the WMS-IV?

1. Visual Memory
2. Auditory Memory
3. Visual Working Memory
4. Immediate Memory
5. Delayed Memory

86

What are the 4 new sub-tests of the WMS-IV?

1. Brief Cognitive Status Exam
2. Designs
3. Symbol Span
4. Spatial Addition

87

The Sub-tests which make up the Auditory Memory Index (AMI) Index of the WMS-IV are;

1. Logical Memory I & II
2. Verbal Paired Associates I & II

88

The Sub-tests which make up the Visual Memory Index (VMI) Index of the WMS-IV are;

1. Designs I & II
2. Visual Reproduction I & II

89

The Sub-tests which make up the Visual Working Memory Index (VWMI) Index of the WMS-IV

1. Spatial Addition I & II
2. Symbol Search I & II

90

The Sub-tests which make up the Immediate Memory Index (IMI) of the WMS-IV are;

1. Designs 1
2. Visual Reproduction 1
3. Logical Memory 1
4. Verbal Paired Associates 1

91

The Sub-tests which make up the Delayed Memory Index (DMI) of the WMS-IV are;

1. Designs II
2. Visual Reproduction II
3. Logical Memory II
4. Verbal Paired Associates II

92

What are the 4 conditions of the Doors test and what objects are used in each condition?

Visual Recall - Shapes
Verbal Recall - People
Visual Recognition - Doors
Verbal Recognition - Names

93

The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test involves memorising a list of words how many times (with one distractor trial)

5

94

How many straight lines are in the Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure

44

95

There are 3 conditions in the Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Test. What are they?

1. Copy
2. Immediate Recall
3. Delayed Recall

96

In the Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Test is the examinee told they will need to remember the figure for the delayed condition?

No

97

In the Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Test how many minutes after initial presentation does the person need to re-create the figure in the delayed condition?

20-30 minutes

98

How many drawings are in the Boston Naming Test?

60

99

How long is the examinee given in the Boston Naming Test to name each picture?

20 seconds

100

If the examinee in the Boston Naming Test fails to give the correct name, what may the test administrator due to prompt the examinee?

Cue with a phonemic cue, the first part of the word

101

On the Clock Drawing Task, what are some of the "Red Flags" for screening someone for dementia?

1. Wrong Time
2. No hands
3. Missing Numbers
4. Number Substitutions
5. Repetition
6. Refusal

102

What are some of the advantages of using the Clock Drawing Task?

1. Fast and Easy to administer
2. Free
3. Clients Prefer it to the MMSE
4. Can detect problems in executive functioning even when someone scores well on the MMSE
5. Executive Functioning can be impaired before any memory problems are evidence, allowing for early treatment