Flashcards in PSYC4022 Testing and Assessment Week Ten Ethics/ Report Writing Deck (44):
APS Code of Ethics 2007 is built on three principles. What are they?
The rationale for adopting the APS code was based on four factors;
1. Clearly identified and defined ethical principles
When faced with an ethical issue, what are 5 steps you should take?
Step 1 - Recognise when you are facing an ethical issue that is not straightforward to deal with
Step 2 - Check Back through the Code and Guidelines to see whether they offer any insights into the issue
Step 3 - Be prepared to consult colleagues (but think through the implications of this first)
Step 4 - Make use of resources such as the APS Professional Advisory Service
Step 5 - Clearly document the steps you took, the options you considered, the decisions you reached, and the reasons for doing so
(N.B. These are suggestions only and should not be taken as comprehensive)
What is the SOAP format for writing case notes?
S - Subjection
O - Objective
A - Assessment
P - Plan
Record Significant Decisions and Events
What are the 6 elements of a Psychological Report?
1. Demographic Data
2. Reason for Referral
3. Tests Administered
Define: Exculpatory Evidence
Evidence that exonerates a defendant of guilt
Define: Inculpatory Evidence
Evidence that proves guilt
What is the Barnham Effect?
The tendency to assume a general description applies to us personally
What is the difference between a deontological and a utilitarian philosophical approach?
Deontology - Things are right or wrong and Utilitarian - The consequences of what you do makes things right or wrong.
Psychologists who have acted inconsistently with the code of ethics, may be asked to do what?
Required to demonstrate their behaviour was not unethical.
The code of ethics is complemented by a series of guidelines that do what?
the guidelines "clarify and amplify the application of general principles and specific standards" in the code.
Provide 3 examples of where the APS Code of Ethics prescribes how Psychologists should behave?
1. Provide Information in Plain English.
2. Keep adequate records.
3. Obtain Consent where people are unable to provide consent.
Who said and in what year that "an inadequate record of itself is taken to be indicative of poor care"
In which trial in which year did the court conclude that inadquate records were indicative of inadequate care.
Whitree Vs State (1968)
In another case, a lack of progress notes (1 note every 2.5 months) was taken as evidence that the attending physician had acted in bad faith with respect to the treatment of their patient. In which case was that and in what year was it heard.
Donaldson Vs O'Connor, 1974
What do some clinicians do make sure there is a set of notes that doesn't adversely impact the client?
Keep a separate set of notes. (Brown, 1982)
Who and in what year developed the SOAP approach to writing case notes?
Susan Cameron and Imani Turtle-Song, 2002
In the SOAP Model, what does the `S' stand for? And what notes should these contain?
S - Subjective. Information told to the counsellor
In the SOAP Model, what does the `O' stand for and what notes should be included in these?
O - Objective. Direct Observation. Information reported by others.
In the SOAP model, what does the `A' stand for and what notes should be included in this section?
A - Assessment. Psychologist's current thinking about the client. Including Diagnoses; ruling in or out of possibilities.
In the SOAP model, what does the `P' stand for and what should be included in this section?
P - Plan. Interventions during session; activities for the client.
What is the most important thing to consider when writing a psychological report?
There are 4 things to consider when writing a Psychological Report for a Particular Audience. What are they?
2. Acronyms - Don't Use
3. Verbal Debrief?
4. Language Suitable
There are 11 pieces of information that go into a Cover Page. What are they?
1. Identifying Information
2. Details of Candidate/ Client
3. Details of Assessor
4. Date of Assessment
5. Directions for Report Use
6. Privacy Statement
8. Description of Tests and Norms
9. Purpose of Assessment
10. Approximate Time Period over which findings are likely to remain valid
11. Storage and Future Use
What are the 8 other things to consider in general, when writing a report?
1. Departures from Standardisation
2. All Variables - e.g. Culture, English
3. Choice of Norms
4. Understand the Concept of True Score Vs Test Score
5. Generalise with Care
6. Adequate Training on Interpretation
7. Seek Verification from feedback session - `blind' testing
8. Verify the accuracy of of computer generated tests in light of own interpretive skills
There are 4 things to consider in regard to Computer Based Test Interpretation of Tests. What are they?
1. May pick up on things that a human would miss
2. Who's responsible for the results; the administrator, the program developer?
3. Potential for mis-use by an untrained person
4. Potential for Over-generalisation
What is vital that you provide when reporting test scores in a Psychological report?
Explanation of what the test scores mean.
10 Points to Consider when reporting test results are;
1. Consider Audience
2. Avoid stating interpretations as facts
3. When making predictions, use phrases like, "can be expected to…"
4. Limit Psychological Terminology
5. Use Relative Vs Absolute Terms
6. Use results to create understanding rather than to categorise
7. Interpret without judgement
8. Balance positive with negative information
9. Think about how I would justify interpretation in a court of law
10. Be certain, but not inflexible
There are 10 pieces of information for demographic data that you might include in the Psychological Report. What are they?
2. Dob/place of birth
3. Marital Status
7. Examiner's Name
8. Date of Testing/Assessment
10. Phone number
What are 2 tips for writing the results section of a psychological report?
1. Be succint
2. Use qualitative Interpretation
Background Information in a Psychological Report should include;
1. Medical History and Relevant Details
2. AOD History
3. Occupational and Education
4. Social Situation
5. Comment from client about their perception of the problem
6. Direct Relevance and Concise as possible
What are 3 things to consider when writing the diagnosis section of a psychological report?
1. Be definite
2. Use…. "It is my professional opinion…"
3. If you can't make a definite diagnosis make that clear.
How is consent Informed?
1. Explain the nature and purpose of procedures
2. Clarify reasonable risks, adverse effects, possible disadvantages
3. Explain how information is collected/recorded/stored/ and confidentiality
4. Explain Consequences of withdrawing and termination
5. Clarify frequency, duration and financial basis
2 Ways Psychologists can upload the ethical principle of Privacy
1. Collect only information relevant to the privacy in the collection of information.
2. Not requiring supervisees or trainees to disclose their personal information
When can a Psychologist Disclose Confidential Information?
1. With the consent of the client.
2. When legally obliged to do so.
3. When there is an immediate and specified risk of harm to an identifiable person
4. In supervision or in consultation with other psychologists providing the identity of the client is hidden or the client's consent is obtained
What is the Psychologists' Ethical Responsibilities regarding the release of information to clients?
Psychologists do not refuse any reasonable request from clients, or former clients, to access client information.
What is a Psychologists' Ethical Responsibilities in regard to Competence?
Psychologists only provide psychological services within the boundaries of their professional competence
What are the Psychologists' 3 Ethical Responsibilities in regard to Record Keeping?
1. Psychologists make and keep adequate records.
2. Psychologists keep records for a minimum of 7 years
3. Where the client is
What is a Psychologists' Ethical Responsibilities in regard to Financial Arrangements?
Psychologists must make financial arrangements in advance and avoid making a financial arrangement that adversely influences the Psychological practice
What is a Psychologists' Ethical Responsibilities in regard to Cultural and Language Backgrounds?
There is an expectation that Psychologists are aware of Language and Cultural Backgrounds and the influence they can have on assessment.
There are 10 areas in which ethical principles apply. What are they?
1. Informed Consent
4. Disclosing Confidential Information
5. Release of Information to Clients
7. Record Keeping
8. Financial Arrangements
9.Cultural and Language Background
10. Psychological Assessments
What is a Psychologists' Ethical Responsibilities in regard to Psychological Assessments?
1. Psychologists use standard scientific procedures and observe relevant psychometric standards when developing psychological tests
2. Psychologists specify the purpose and uses of their assessment techniques and indicate the limits of the assessment applicability
3. Psychologists ensure that they can choose, administer and interpret assessment procedures approrpriates and accurately
4. Psychologists use valid procedures and research findings when scoring and interpreting psychological assessment data
5. Psychologists report assessment results appropriately and accurately in lagnauge that the recipient can understand
6. Psychologists do not rend psychological assessments open by publishing or otherwise disclosing their contents
Adequate Note Taking is important for Psychologists for several reasons. Note down 4 of them here;
1. Protect the Psychologist against malpractice
2. Determine changes in the client progress
3. Track current status of treatment
4. Avoid being reported by Government Agencies