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First Aid 2014 > PSYCH 500-503 > Flashcards

Flashcards in PSYCH 500-503 Deck (85)
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1

In classical conditioning, what two things are paired together to produce a learned response?

Conditioned stimulus (e.g. bell) with an unconditioned stimulus (e.g. food)

2

Is the learned response in classical conditioning usually voluntary or involuntary?

Involuntary

3

What type of conditioning typically deals with voluntary responses?

Operant conditioning

4

In operant conditioning, how is a particular action elicited?

Either because it produces a punishment or a reward

5

What are the 4 types of operant conditioning?

1. Positive reinforcement
2. Negative reinforcement
3. Punishment
4. Extinction

6

What is the difference between positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement?

In positive reinforcement, the behavior brings about reward whereas in negative reinforcement, the behavior brings about removal of punishment (aversive stimulus).

7

What is punishment?

Repeated application of aversive stimulus to extinguish unwanted behavior

8

What is extinction?

Discontinuation of reinforcement (positive or negative) eventually eliminates behavior?

9

Does extinction occur in operant conditioning, classical conditioning, both, or neither?

Both

10

Patient starts to see psychiatrist as a parent figure. What is this an example of?

Transference - when patient projects feelings about formative or other important persons onto the physician

11

Patient reminds physician of younger sibling. What is this an example of?

Countertransference - when doctor projects feelings about formative or other important persons onto patient

12

What are ego defenses?

Unconscious mental processes used to resolve conflict and prevent undesirable feelings (e.g. anxiety, depression)

13

What are the two subcategories of ego defenses?

Mature and Immature

14

What are the 4 mature defenses?

Mnemnoic: Mature adults wear a SASH

1. Altruism
2. Humor
3. Sublimation
4. Suppression

15

What are the 13 immature defenses?

MNEMONIC: Immature idiots fail at speaking professionally, 4 real (4 R's) dude (think dud3 - 3'D's).

Identification
Isolation (of affect)
Fixation
Acting Out
Splitting
Projection

4 Rationalization
Reaction formation
Regression
Repression

Dissociation
Denial
Displacement

16

What type of ego defense is a tantrum an example of?

Acting out - expressing unacceptable feelings and thoughts through actions

17

When a patient avoids emotional stress via a temporary, drastic change in personality, memory, consciousness, or motor behavior, what is this called? What can this progress to?

Dissociation

Extreme forms can result in dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality)

18

What is denial?

Avoiding the awareness of some painful reality

19

Which patients are especially prone to exhibit denial?

Newly diagnosed AIDS and cancer patients

20

A mother yells at her child because her husband yelled at her. What is this an example of?

Displacement - transferring avoided ideas and feelings to some neutral person or object

21

A man who wants another woman thinks his wife is cheating on him. What is this an example of?

Projection - attributing an unacceptable internal impulse to an external source

22

What is the difference between displacement and projection?

Displacement - expressing a feeling that was given to you onto someone or something else; i.e. a displaced reaction

Contrast this with projection - where the feelings you are projecting are your own feelings that arose organically (not really a reaction per se)

23

What is the difference between fixation and regression?

Fixation - partially REMAINING at a more childish level of develop

Regression - turning back the maturational clock and GOING BACK to earlier modes of dealing with the world

24

What is identification?

Modeling behavior after another person who is more powerful (though not necessarily admired)

25

What is it called when you separate feelings from ideas and events?

Isolation of affect

26

Define rationalization.

Proclaiming logical reasons for actions actually performed for other reasons, usually to avoid self-blame

27

A patient with libidinous thoughts enter a monastery. What is this an example of?

Reaction formation - replacing a warded-off idea or feeling by an unconsciously derived emphasis on its opposite.

28

What is the mature response version of reaction formation?

Sublimation

29

A patient does not recall a conflictual or traumatic experience. What is this an example of?

Repression - involuntary withholding an idea or feeling from conscious awareness

30

How does repression differ from suppression?

Repression is involuntary whereas suppression is an intentional withholding of an idea or feeling from conscious awareness