Flashcards in PSYCH 500-503 Deck (85)
In classical conditioning, what two things are paired together to produce a learned response?
Conditioned stimulus (e.g. bell) with an unconditioned stimulus (e.g. food)
Is the learned response in classical conditioning usually voluntary or involuntary?
What type of conditioning typically deals with voluntary responses?
In operant conditioning, how is a particular action elicited?
Either because it produces a punishment or a reward
What are the 4 types of operant conditioning?
1. Positive reinforcement
2. Negative reinforcement
What is the difference between positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement?
In positive reinforcement, the behavior brings about reward whereas in negative reinforcement, the behavior brings about removal of punishment (aversive stimulus).
What is punishment?
Repeated application of aversive stimulus to extinguish unwanted behavior
What is extinction?
Discontinuation of reinforcement (positive or negative) eventually eliminates behavior?
Does extinction occur in operant conditioning, classical conditioning, both, or neither?
Patient starts to see psychiatrist as a parent figure. What is this an example of?
Transference - when patient projects feelings about formative or other important persons onto the physician
Patient reminds physician of younger sibling. What is this an example of?
Countertransference - when doctor projects feelings about formative or other important persons onto patient
What are ego defenses?
Unconscious mental processes used to resolve conflict and prevent undesirable feelings (e.g. anxiety, depression)
What are the two subcategories of ego defenses?
Mature and Immature
What are the 4 mature defenses?
Mnemnoic: Mature adults wear a SASH
What are the 13 immature defenses?
MNEMONIC: Immature idiots fail at speaking professionally, 4 real (4 R's) dude (think dud3 - 3'D's).
Isolation (of affect)
What type of ego defense is a tantrum an example of?
Acting out - expressing unacceptable feelings and thoughts through actions
When a patient avoids emotional stress via a temporary, drastic change in personality, memory, consciousness, or motor behavior, what is this called? What can this progress to?
Extreme forms can result in dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality)
What is denial?
Avoiding the awareness of some painful reality
Which patients are especially prone to exhibit denial?
Newly diagnosed AIDS and cancer patients
A mother yells at her child because her husband yelled at her. What is this an example of?
Displacement - transferring avoided ideas and feelings to some neutral person or object
A man who wants another woman thinks his wife is cheating on him. What is this an example of?
Projection - attributing an unacceptable internal impulse to an external source
What is the difference between displacement and projection?
Displacement - expressing a feeling that was given to you onto someone or something else; i.e. a displaced reaction
Contrast this with projection - where the feelings you are projecting are your own feelings that arose organically (not really a reaction per se)
What is the difference between fixation and regression?
Fixation - partially REMAINING at a more childish level of develop
Regression - turning back the maturational clock and GOING BACK to earlier modes of dealing with the world
What is identification?
Modeling behavior after another person who is more powerful (though not necessarily admired)
What is it called when you separate feelings from ideas and events?
Isolation of affect
Proclaiming logical reasons for actions actually performed for other reasons, usually to avoid self-blame
A patient with libidinous thoughts enter a monastery. What is this an example of?
Reaction formation - replacing a warded-off idea or feeling by an unconsciously derived emphasis on its opposite.
What is the mature response version of reaction formation?
A patient does not recall a conflictual or traumatic experience. What is this an example of?
Repression - involuntary withholding an idea or feeling from conscious awareness