NEURO: 470-473 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in NEURO: 470-473 Deck (61):
1

What are the nerve roots for all the reflexes?

S1, 2 - "buckle my shoe" (Achilles reflex)
L3, 4 - "kick the door" (patellar reflex)
C5, 6 - "pick up sticks" (biceps reflex)
C7, 8 - "lay them straight" (triceps reflex)

L1, 2 - "testicles move" (cremaster reflex)
S3, 4 - "winks galore" (anal wink reflex)

2

What are the nerve roots for the Achilles reflex?

S1, 2 - "buckle my shoe"

3

What are the nerve roots for the patellar reflex?

L3, 4 - "kick the door"

4

What are the nerve roots for the biceps reflex?

C5, 6 - "pick up sticks"

5

What are the nerve roots for the triceps reflex?

C7, 8 - "lay them straight"

6

What are the nerve roots for the cremaster reflex?

L1, 2 - "testicles move"

7

What are the nerve roots for the anal wink reflex?

S3, 4 - "winks galore"

8

What are primitive reflexes?

CNS reflexes that are present in a healthy infant, but that are absent in a neurologically intact adult

9

When do primitive reflexes normally disappear?

Within the first year of life

10

What causes the primitive reflexes to disappear?

Inhibition by a mature/developing frontal lobe

11

When do we see reemergence of primitive reflexes?

Frontal lobe lesions - loss of the normal inhibition

12

What are the 6 primitive reflexes?

2 involve the mouth:
1. Rooting reflex
2. Sucking reflex

2 involve fingers/toes
1. Palmar reflex
2. Plantar reflex

2 involve whole body:
1. Moro reflex
2. Galant reflex

13

What is the Moro reflex?

Abduct/extend limbs when startled, and then draw together

"Hang on for life" reflex

14

What is the rooting reflex?

Movement of head toward one side if cheek or mouth is stroked (nipple seeking)

15

What is the sucking reflex?

Sucking response when roof of mouth is touched

16

What is the palmar reflex?

Curling of fingers if palm is stroked

17

What is the plantar reflex?

Dorsiflexion of the large toe and fanning of others with plantar stimullation
(AKA Babinski sign)

18

What is the Galant reflex?

Stroking along one side of the spine while newborn is in ventral suspension (face down) causes lateral flexion of lower body toward stimulated side

19

Know where the cranial nerves are located in the brain stem.

General Principles:
1. 4 in the midbrain or above, 4 in the pons, 4 in the medulla
2. CN III, IV, VI, XII in the middle (factors of 12, except for 2)
3. CN IV is the only one that exits on the dorsal side

20

What 2 processes is the pineal gland involved in?

Melatonin secretion and circadian rhythms

21

Are the colliculi located on the ventral or dorsal side of the brain stem?

Dorsal

22

Which brain stem colliculi are involved in vision and which ones are involved in hearing?

Superior = visual
Inferior = auditory

Think: Your eyes are above your ears

23

What is Parinaud syndrome?

Paralysis of conjugate vertical gaze due to lesion in superior colliculi (e.g. pinealoma)

24

What are the cranial nerves?

I - olfactory
II - optic
III - oculomotor
IV - trochlear
V - trigeminal
VI - abducens
VII - facial
VIII - vestibulocochlear
IX - glossopharyngeal
X - vagus
XI - accessory
XII - hypoglossal

25

What are the components (sensory, motor, or both) or each of the cranial nerves?

Mnemonic: Some Say Marry Money But My Brother Says Big Brains Matter More.
Components: I - sensory, II - sensory, III - motor, IV - motor, V - both, VI - motor, VII - both, VIII - sensory, IX - both, X - both, XI - motor, XII - motor

26

Which is the only cranial nerve without thalamic relax to cortex and what does it mediate?

CN I - smell

27

What are the three cranial nerves that mediate eye movement?

CN III (superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique)
CN IV (superior oblique)
CN VI (lateral rectus)

28

What two muscles does the accessory nerve innervate?

SCM, trapezius

29

What are the functions of the facial nerve?

1. Facial movement
2. Taste from anterior 2/3 of tongue
3. Lacrimation
4. Salivation (submandibular and sublingual glands)
5. Eyelid closing (orbicularis oculi)
6. Stapedius muscle in the ear

30

Does the facial nerve innervate the parotid gland?

No - it just courses through it

31

What does CN III mediate besides extraocular movement?

Pupillary constriction, accommodation, eyelid opening

32

What does CN IX mediate?

1. Taste and somatosensation from posterior 1/3 of the tongue
2. Swallowing
3. Salivation (parotid gland)
4. Monitoring carotid body and sinus chemo- and baroreceptors
5. Stylopharyngeus (elevates the pharynx and larynx)

33

What are the functions of the vagus nerve?

Mnemonic: VAGUS TEN
Viscera
Aortic arch chemo and baroreceptors
Gabbing (talking)
Uvula midline
Swallowing

Taste from the epiglottis
Elevation of the soft palate
Noisy coughs

34

How are the motor vs. sensory cranial nerve nuclei laid out in the brain stem?

Motor = Medial
Sensory = Lateral (on the Side)

35

What are the 5 cranial nerve reflexes?

1. Corneal
2. Lacrimation
3. Jaw jerk
4. Pupillary
5. Gag

36

What are the afferent and efferent branches of the corneal nerve reflex?

Afferent: V1 ophthalmic
Efferent: VII (temporal branch: orbicularis oculi)

37

What are the afferent and efferent branches of the lacrimation reflex?

Afferent: V1
Efferent: VII

38

Is lacrimation reflex the same as emotional tears?

No, loss of the lacrimation reflex does not preclude emotional tears

39

What are the afferent and efferent branches of the jaw jerk reflex?

Afferent: V3 (sensory - muscle spindle from masseter)
Efferent: V3 (motor - masseter)

40

What are the afferent and efferent branches of the pupillary reflex?

Afferent: II
Efferent: III

41

What are the afferent and efferent branches of the gag reflex?

Afferent: IX
Efferent: X

42

What are the 3 vagal nuclei?

1. Nucleus solitarius
2. Nucleus ambiguus
3. Dorsal motor nucleus

43

What three cranial nerves make up the nucleus solitarius?

VII, IX, X

44

What information is carried in the nucleus solitarius?

Visceral sensory information (e.g. taste, baroreceptors, gut distention)

45

What three cranial nerves make up the nucleus ambiguus?

IX, X, XI

46

What is the function of the nucleus ambiguus?

Motor innervatino of pharynx, larynx, and upper esophagus (e.g. swallowing, palate elevation)

47

What is the function of the dorsal motor nucleus?

Sends autonomic (parasympathetic) fibers to the heart, lungs, and upper GI

48

Which cranial nerve nuclei make up the dorsal motor nucleus?

Just X

49

Where does CN I pass through?

Cribiform plate

50

Which cranial nerves are found in the middle cranial fossa?

CN II - VI

51

Which cranial nerves are found in the posterior cranial fossa?

CN VII - XII

52

What is contained in the optic canal?

CN II, ophthalmic artery, central retinal vein

53

What passes through the superior orbital fissure?

CN III, IV, V1, VI, ophthalmic vein, sympathetic fibers

54

Where do the different divisions of CN V exit the skull from?

Mnemonic: CN V exits due to Standing Room Only (SRO)

V1 - Superior orbital fissue
V2 - foramen Rotundum
V3 - foramen Ovale

55

What passes through the foramen spinosum?

Middle meningeal artery

56

Where do CN VII and CN VIII exit the skull?

Internal auditory meatus

57

What passes through the jugular foramen?

CN IX, X, XI, jugular vein

58

Where does CN XII exit the skull?

Hypoglossal canal

59

What passes through the foramen magnum?

CN XI, brain stem, vertebral arteries

60

The cranial nerves in the middle cranial fossa pass through which bone?

Sphenoid

61

The cranial nerves in the posterior cranial fossa pass through which bone(s)?

Temporal or occipital bone