RESPIRATORY: 602 - 603 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in RESPIRATORY: 602 - 603 Deck (23):
1

Describe the pathophysiology of rhinosinusitis.

Obstruction of sinus drainage into the nasal cavity leads to inflammation and pain over the affected area

2

Which sinus is most commonly affected in rhinosinusitis in adults?

Maxillary

3

What is the most common acute cause of rhinosinusitis?

Viral URI (in particular adenovirus)

4

What can often be superimposed on top of rhinosinusitis?

Bacterial infection

5

What are common bacteria that cause a superimposed infection on rhinosinusitis?

S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis

6

What type of hypersensitivity reaction is allergic rhinitis?

Type I

7

What are two associations with allergic rhinitis?

Asthma and eczema

8

What do you see histologically with allergic rhinitis?

Inflammatory infiltrate with eosinophils

9

What is Virchow's triad for deep venous thrombosis?

1. Stasis
2. Hypercoagulability (e.g. defect in coagulation cascade proteins)
3. Endothelial damage (exposed collagen triggers clotting cascade)

10

What is the most common defect in coagulation cascade proteins?

Factor V Leiden

11

Where do 95% of pulmonary emboli arise from?

Deep leg veins

12

What is Homan sign and what does it check for?

Checks for DVT
When dorsiflexion of the foot causes calf pain

13

What medication can you give to prevent DVT/for acute management?

Heparin

14

What medication can you give for long-term prevention of DVT recurrence?

Warfarin

15

What are the different types of emboli?

Mnemonic: FAT BAT

Fat
Air
Thrombus
Bacteria
Amniotic
Tumor

16

How does a pulmonary embolus present?

Sudden-onset dyspnea, chest pain, tachypnea

May also present as sudden death

17

How does pulmonary emboli lead to respiratory alkalosis?

Pulmonary emboli --> V/Q mismatch --> hypoxemia --> respiratory alkalosis

18

What are fat emboli often associated with?

Long bone fractures and liposuction

19

What is the classic triad of fat emboli?

Hypoxemia, neurologic abnormalities, petechial rash

20

What is a major complication of amniotic fluid emboli?

DIC - especially postpartum

21

When do gas emboli originate?

Nitrogen bubbles precipitate in ascending divers

22

How do you treat gas emboli?

Hyperbaric oxygen

23

What is the ideal imaging test to check for pulmonary emboli?

CT pulmonary angiography - look for filling defects