Flashcards in PSYCH B 💃🏻💃🏻 Deck (39):
Explore the 4 issues that guide development research
Nature vs nurture (what extent is development hereditary or environment)
Sensitive vs critical (sensitive and critical stages of development)
Continuity vs discontinuity (continual gradual development vs discontinuous distinct stages ie caterpillar emerging as butterfly)
Stability vs change ( how consistent are characteristics as we age, does inhibition fade etc)
Explain the different designs used to conduct developmental research
Cross-sectional design - compare different people of different ages at the same point in time
Longitudinal design - repeatedly test cohort as it ages
Sequential design - combines cross sectional and longitudinal
What is the effect of different teratogens in prenatal development?
Teratogens are external agents that cause abnormal prenatal development. Can cause defects such as blindness, deafness, heart defects and mental retardation
Explain how Piaget emphasised stages of development
Piaget’s proposed that we acquire new schemes and elaborate existing schemes
Existing schemas - assimilation
New schemas - accomodation
What is assimilation?
Applying an existing schema to a new experience I.e baby calling a possum a kitty because it looks like a cat
What is accomodation?
New experiences cause existing schemas to change I.e child will eventually learn that the possum has behaviour that difffers from a kitty
What is a schema?
Organised patterns of thought and action
It guides out interaction with the world
Piaget’s stages of development are: SPCF
What is the sensorimotor stage?
Birth - 2
Infant understands world through sensory and motor experiences
Achieves object permanence
Begins to think symbolically
What is preoperational stage?
Child uses symbolic thinking to represent objects and experiences
Engage in pretend play
Thinking displays egocentrism
What is concrete operational?
Think logically about concrete events
What is formal operational?
Can think logically, abstractly and flexibly
Describe Erickson’s 8 stages of identity
Infancy - basic trust vs mistrust
Toddler - autonomy vs shame/doubt
Early childhood - initiative vs guilt
Middle childhood - industry vs inferiority
Adolescence - identity vs role
Early adulthood - intimacy vs isolation
Middle adulthood - generativity vs stagnation
Late adulthood - integrity vs despair
What are the 3 phases of primary attachment proposed by John bowlby?
Indiscriminate attachment - infant cries toward everyone evoking caregiving from adults (new born)
Discriminate attachment - infants direct attachment toward familiar caregivers (3 months)
Specific attachment - infants develop meaningful attachment (7-8month)
What is the impact of attachment deprivation?
Can produce long term social impairment
What are authoritative parents?
Controlling but warm
Children have higher self esteem and high achievers
What are authoritarian parents?
Exert control with a cold, unresponsive or rejecting relationship
Children tend to have low self esteem, less popular, perform poorly in school
What are indulgent parents?
Warm caring relationships with children but provide no guidance and discipline
Children tend to be more immature and self-centred
What are neglectful parents like?
Provide neither warmth nor guidance
Children are I securely attached and have low achievement and motivation
How does moral thinking develop?
Through reinforcement and punishment skinner proposed
Distinctive and enduring way of thinking, feeling and acting that characterise a persons responses to life situations
What are the three characteristics of behaviour that reflect an individuals personality?
Behavioural component of identity ( that which distinguishes people from one another)
Internal rather than environmental - behaviours are internal factors rather than environmental
Behaviours have organisation and structure
What to psychodynamic theorists look for?
A dynamic interplay of inner forces that often conflict with one another
Major psychodynamic theorists are:
Weaknesses of psychodynamic approaches to personality
Ambiguous and Not easily measured
Specific propositions have not held up under research
Describe how phenomenological-humanistic approaches emphasise integrated personal experiences
Focus on the present instead of the past
They believed that our behaviour is in response to our immediate conscious experience of self and environment
George Kelly theory:
Personal construct theory
To make sense of the world and create personal constructs, cognitive categories into which the individual sort the people and their events in their lives. When they are unable to make sense of their world this results in anxiety
Developed fixed-role therapy - shy client play the role of a confident person
Carl Rogers central concept:
An organised consistent set of perceptions of and beliefs about ones self that once formed can guide our perceptions and direct our behaviour
What is Carl Rogers concept of the need for positive regard
People need positive regard from others and from themselves
Positive regard is sympathy, acceptance and love
Strengths and weaknesses of phenomenological-humanistic approaches
Humanistic view relies too heavily on the individuals reports of their personal experience
Therapy may help the client become more self-accepting and more realistic
How do trait approaches describe behavioural dispositions?
They are stable emotional, cognitive and behavioural characteristics of people that help establish their individual identities and distinguish them from others
What is factor analysis?
It is used to identity clusters of behaviour that are highly correlated with one another. Behaviour clusters can be viewed as reflecting a basic trait
Raymond b cattell
What personality test did cattell develop?
16 personality factor questionnaire.
Strengths and weaknesses of trait theorist
Over simplify the complexity of personality
They have made an important contribution. He focusing attention on the value of identifying classifying and measuring stable personality dispositions
How do biological theories emphasise genetic and neural processes?
They demonstrate that there is neural bases that involve specific brain structures which are related to extraversion and stability
Major theorist associated with biological theories