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Flashcards in PSYCH B πŸ’ƒπŸ»πŸ’ƒπŸ» Deck (39):
1

Explore the 4 issues that guide development research

Nature vs nurture (what extent is development hereditary or environment)
Sensitive vs critical (sensitive and critical stages of development)
Continuity vs discontinuity (continual gradual development vs discontinuous distinct stages ie caterpillar emerging as butterfly)
Stability vs change ( how consistent are characteristics as we age, does inhibition fade etc)

2

Explain the different designs used to conduct developmental research

Cross-sectional design - compare different people of different ages at the same point in time

Longitudinal design - repeatedly test cohort as it ages

Sequential design - combines cross sectional and longitudinal

3

What is the effect of different teratogens in prenatal development?

Teratogens are external agents that cause abnormal prenatal development. Can cause defects such as blindness, deafness, heart defects and mental retardation

4

Explain how Piaget emphasised stages of development

Piaget’s proposed that we acquire new schemes and elaborate existing schemes

Existing schemas - assimilation
New schemas - accomodation

5

What is assimilation?

Applying an existing schema to a new experience I.e baby calling a possum a kitty because it looks like a cat

6

What is accomodation?

New experiences cause existing schemas to change I.e child will eventually learn that the possum has behaviour that difffers from a kitty

7

What is a schema?

Organised patterns of thought and action

It guides out interaction with the world

8

Piaget’s stages of development are: SPCF

Sensorimotor
Preoperational
Concrete operational
Formal operational

9

What is the sensorimotor stage?

Birth - 2

Infant understands world through sensory and motor experiences

Achieves object permanence

Begins to think symbolically

10

What is preoperational stage?

2-7

Symbolic thinking

Child uses symbolic thinking to represent objects and experiences

Engage in pretend play

Thinking displays egocentrism

11

What is concrete operational?

7-12

Think logically about concrete events

12

What is formal operational?

12 plus

Can think logically, abstractly and flexibly

13

Describe Erickson’s 8 stages of identity

Infancy - basic trust vs mistrust

Toddler - autonomy vs shame/doubt

Early childhood - initiative vs guilt

Middle childhood - industry vs inferiority

Adolescence - identity vs role
Confusion

Early adulthood - intimacy vs isolation

Middle adulthood - generativity vs stagnation

Late adulthood - integrity vs despair

14

What are the 3 phases of primary attachment proposed by John bowlby?

Indiscriminate attachment - infant cries toward everyone evoking caregiving from adults (new born)

Discriminate attachment - infants direct attachment toward familiar caregivers (3 months)

Specific attachment - infants develop meaningful attachment (7-8month)

15

What is the impact of attachment deprivation?

Can produce long term social impairment

16

What are authoritative parents?

Controlling but warm

Children have higher self esteem and high achievers

17

What are authoritarian parents?

Exert control with a cold, unresponsive or rejecting relationship

Children tend to have low self esteem, less popular, perform poorly in school

18

What are indulgent parents?

Warm caring relationships with children but provide no guidance and discipline

Children tend to be more immature and self-centred

19

What are neglectful parents like?

Provide neither warmth nor guidance

Children are I securely attached and have low achievement and motivation

20

How does moral thinking develop?

Through reinforcement and punishment skinner proposed

21

Define personality

Distinctive and enduring way of thinking, feeling and acting that characterise a persons responses to life situations

22

What are the three characteristics of behaviour that reflect an individuals personality?

Behavioural component of identity ( that which distinguishes people from one another)

Internal rather than environmental - behaviours are internal factors rather than environmental

Behaviours have organisation and structure

23

What to psychodynamic theorists look for?

A dynamic interplay of inner forces that often conflict with one another

24

Major psychodynamic theorists are:

Freud
Jung
Alfred adler
Karen horney
Erik erikson
Melanie Klein
Otto kernburg
Margaret Mahler
Heinz kohut

25

Weaknesses of psychodynamic approaches to personality

Ambiguous and Not easily measured

Specific propositions have not held up under research

Long process
Expensive
Time consuming

26

Describe how phenomenological-humanistic approaches emphasise integrated personal experiences

Focus on the present instead of the past

They believed that our behaviour is in response to our immediate conscious experience of self and environment

27

Phenomenological-humanist theorists:

Carl Rogers
George Kelly

28

George Kelly theory:

Personal construct theory

To make sense of the world and create personal constructs, cognitive categories into which the individual sort the people and their events in their lives. When they are unable to make sense of their world this results in anxiety

Developed fixed-role therapy - shy client play the role of a confident person

29

Carl Rogers central concept:

The self

An organised consistent set of perceptions of and beliefs about ones self that once formed can guide our perceptions and direct our behaviour

30

What is Carl Rogers concept of the need for positive regard

People need positive regard from others and from themselves

Positive regard is sympathy, acceptance and love

31

Strengths and weaknesses of phenomenological-humanistic approaches

Humanistic view relies too heavily on the individuals reports of their personal experience

Therapy may help the client become more self-accepting and more realistic

32

How do trait approaches describe behavioural dispositions?

They are stable emotional, cognitive and behavioural characteristics of people that help establish their individual identities and distinguish them from others

33

What is factor analysis?

It is used to identity clusters of behaviour that are highly correlated with one another. Behaviour clusters can be viewed as reflecting a basic trait

34

Trait theorists

Raymond b cattell

35

What personality test did cattell develop?

16 personality factor questionnaire.

36

Strengths and weaknesses of trait theorist

Over simplify the complexity of personality

Positive:

They have made an important contribution. He focusing attention on the value of identifying classifying and measuring stable personality dispositions

37

How do biological theories emphasise genetic and neural processes?

They demonstrate that there is neural bases that involve specific brain structures which are related to extraversion and stability

38

Major theorist associated with biological theories

Eysenck

39

What is temperament?

Refers to individual differences in emotional and behavioural styles that appear so early in like that they are assumed to have a biological basis


Temperamental factors are building blocks that influence the development of personality