Flashcards in Psychodynamic Deck (30)
Designed therapy that focused on the individual, intentionally excluded family. Sex and Aggression
Melanie Klein, Ronald Fairbarin, and Donald Winnicott
Concentrated on the nature of interpersonal relationships as fundamental drives.
Jill and David Scharff
First to apply object relations theory to treatment of marital conflict. Leading figures in Psychodynamic Family Therapy. Started at the Washington School.
His work combines intergenerational and object relations approaches to family therapy - Family of Origin Approach
Object Relation Theory
"We relate to others on the basis of expectations formed by early experience". Bridges gap between psychoanalysis and family therapy. Selfhood and identity are formed and maintained through relationships in past and present
Freudian drive psychology
At the heart of human nature are two drives: libidinal and aggressive.
Based on idea that every human being longs to be appreciated.
Mental Images of self and others built up from experience and expectation.
National Institute of Mental Health
Ryckoff, Cohen, Day, & Wynne. Studied schizophrenia and their families.
Ryckoff & Wynne
Inaugurated a course of family dynamics at the Washington School which led to family training programs. 1960s.
Contextual Therapy. Believed that rational ethics were a fundamental force that holds family and societal relationships together. Discussed the concepts of Loyalty, Entitlements, and the Ledger. Viewed parentification as a "revolving slate of injustice". Exoneration was forgiveness of FOO to release the hold of the past.
When two ideas conflict, a child "splits off" the bad aspects from the good aspects to maintain continuity.
Something that is experienced as a part of the self; talking about parents as "self-objects" in family therapy, as children do not see their parents as separate from themselves.
Understanding plus acceptance. One of two things essential in self-psychology to the development of a secure and cohesive self, along with Idealization.
The child thinks of the parent as ideal, and as they see the child as a part of their parent the child gains self-esteem. One of two things essential in self-psychology to the development of a secure and cohesive self along with Mirroring.
Traced the development of the self through detailed observations of infants and children - Proposed that infants begin individualization at birth and then move towards relatedness and away from individualization. The most recent contribution to psychoanalytic family therapy.
Contextual Family Therapy
Ivan Boszormenyi-Nagy. Emphasizes the ethical dimension of family development and the importance of decency and fairness.
Freud - Someone displacing their feelings towards someone onto another person. Developed into a term that describes client putting their feelings onto therapist.
Therapist projecting their feelings onto client.
A subject perceives an object as if it contains unwelcome elements of the subject's personality - you project something you don't like about yourself onto other's.
Psychoanalytic Theory: Development of behavior disorders
Poor adjustment is a result of inadequate separation – parent’s failure to accept their children as separate beings can take extreme form. Failure to develop a cohesive sense of self and a differentiated identity causes intense emotional attachment to the family
When faced with too much stress, families revert to an earlier level of development
Families function adequately until they are overtaxed, at which point they become stuck in dysfunctional patterns.
Goals of Psychoanalytic Theory
Intrapsychic restructuring or personality change. Family members are freed of unconscious restrictions and individuals are helped to reintegrate split-off parts of themselves in order to become fully integrated or cohesive. Most common objectives are differentiation or separation/individuation
Nagy. Unconscious commitments children take on to help their families to the detriment of their own wellbeing. EG, a kid getting sick to keep their family together.
Loyalty (Contextual Family Therapy)
Nagy believed that families owe each other loyalties and earn merits through supporting one another.
Therapist technique. Understanding without worrying about solving problems. Do not get anxious about preventing fights. Being aware of transference (client putting feelings on therapist) and countertransference (therapist putting feelings on client)
Developing insight and understanding and then urging client to consider what they are going to do about the problems they discuss.
Believed deeply in the value of bringing multiple generations/FOO into session in order to alleviate problems in the current relationship; progresses from present oriented individual and couple work to more historical oriented FOO work and family sessions. Multi-day, multi-hour FOO sessions.