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Flashcards in psychology ch 1-4 Deck (45):

what are the types of sampling procedures

- convenience sampling
-Random sampling
-stratisfied sampling (eliminates certain variable)


Name each of the experimental designs

-Repeated measures
-matched participants
-independent groups


Explain the placebo effect

Refers to the participants behavior being influenced by their expectations o how they should behave


Define consciousness

Consciousness can be defined at the awareness of our own thoughts, feelings, perceptions and surroundings at any given moment.


What does William James believe consciousness is?

- Continuous


give the order of the continuum of awarness

Total awareness
Focused attention
Ordinary wakefulness
Total lack of awareness


Name and explain the characteristics of ASC

Level of awarness- may be increased or decreased during compared to NWC. However we most often loose or awareness is lowered during ASC

Content limitation- Usually reduced ability to process information and to control what we say to certain people.

Controlled and Automatic processes- Less able to preform both controlled and automatic processes, but some auto processes like walking may be able to do.

Perceptual and cognitive distortions- perception (including pain) may be altered. Memory processes may be disrupted or distorted. thinking is disorganized and less logical

Emotional awareness- less control of emotions

Self-control- less control over actions and movements

Time orientation- Distorted sense of time, speed up or slow down.


Why is day dreaming considered to be an ASC

can choose:
-Lowered level of awareness
-Fewer content limitations
-Difficulty preforming controlled processes
-perceptual and cognitive distortions
- changes in self-control
-diminishing time-orientation


Why is alcohol induced state considered to be an ASC

can choose:
-changes in emotional awareness
-decreases self control
-time orientation diminishes
- lowered level of awareness
-more or less content limitations
- difficulty performing controlled processes
-likely perceptual and cognitive distortions


what type of brain waves do we see in stage one of NREM sleep

alpha and some theta


what type of brain waves do we see in stage 4 of NREM sleep.

Just delta waves


what type of brain waves do we see in REM sleep

Beta-like and sawtooth waves


what are sleep spindles and k-complexes and what stage do they occur?

sleep spindles are short rapid bursts of brain activity at high frequency, k-complexes are sudden high amplitude waves. Both of these features occur in stage 2 of NREM sleep.


how does Heart rate, Breathing rate, Muscle tension and Body temperature react through the stages of sleep?

All of which slowly decrease through each stage however they seem to stabilize around stage 3 of NREM sleep.


What is the hypnagogic state?

Hypnagogic state is the transition from being awake to falling asleep and is where our eyes roll back and start to get droopy, alpha waves are present here.


True sleep is believed to begin at what stage?

Stage 2 of NREM sleep


Sleepwalking, Night terrors, sleep talking and bed wetting may occur in this stage.

Stage 4 of NREM sleep.


What is a special feature of stage 1 NREM sleep?

hypnic jerks. These are involuntary muscle spasms that occurs during our sleep.


what is the state where we are transitioning from sleep to waking up?

Hypnopompic state


what is a hypnic jerk and when does it occur?

involuntary muscle twitches that cause us to jolt, usually experienced in early at Stage 1 NREM sleep.


What is the the method of recording sleep that detects amplifies and records electrical activity in the brain? and what do they produce?

the electroencephalograph and it produces electroencephalograms. (brain waves)


What does the electro-oculargraph do?

The electro-oculargraph detects amplifies and records electrical activity in the MUSCLES surrounding the eye.


what does the electromyograph do?

Detects amplifies and records electrical activity in the muscles of the body


What readings would show on an electro-oculargraph during REM sleep

Very rapid movement. High amplitude and frequency.


what is Muscle paralysis or atonia? and what stage of sleep does it occur in?

This is where the muscles in our body are paralysed so they can move because we are in REM sleep so we are dreaming and the mind is very active.


What are some physiological indicators of sleep?

Heart rate, Body temperature, Galvanic skin response(GSR)


What measures heart rate?



What is Galvanic skin response?

GSR is a physiological response that measure the electrical conductivity of the skin.


What is one advantage and disadvantage of a sleep laboratory?

- Is a controlled environment
-Unnatural, may alter sleeping patterns


What is one advantage and disadvantage of video monitoring?

-if taken at the individuals home, the sleeper feels more relaxed and natural which will provide more accurate data
- Data may be difficult to interpret as some sleep behaviours may not be a clear definition to observer.


What is one advantage and disadvantage of self-reports?

-gives an insight to how the participant is actually thinking, feeling and the behaviours they may of experienced
- Some events or experiences may be difficult to convey on paper and therefore makes it difficult to interpret.


Why is sleep an altered state of consciousness?

can choose:
-level of awareness
-perceptual and cognitive distortions
-less self control
-distorted time orientation


explain the survival theory of sleep

Suggests we sleep to protect the individual from harm thus enhancing the survival of the species.
-We sleep at night because we are not searching or used to consuming food at that time
-Sleep at night so we are protected from its dangers like getting hit by a car or getting attacked since we don't have superior night vision


What are some criticisms of the survival theory?

-Does not explain why we sleep, All species need to sleep despite the amount of food of danger they are in.
- We are more vulnerable to predators during sleep as we have a lower awrness


Explain the restorative theory of sleep

Suggests that sleep allows us to recharge our bodies from physical activity and psychological activity during the day.


give some supportive evidence and some criticisms of the restorative theory.

-Marathon runners spent 90 minutes longer and double their NREM (replenish body) sleep after running a marathon
- The assumption that the body rests during sleep, The brain is as active as we are in NWC during REM sleep which makes energy expenditure.


State the 8 steps of the scientific method.

1. Identify the area of research and form an aim
2. collect information
3. Identify research question and formulate hypothesis
4. Design a research method to test the hypothesis
5. collect and analyse data
6. draw a conclusion
7. report findings
8. test the conclusion


What is a way to eliminate order effects in repeated measures design?

counter balancing- Where the conditions for the control and experimental group are placed in different sequence to identify any order affects.


The purpose of using different experimental
designs is to try to reduce the influence of
confounding variables, but each design may
have its own problems. The problem of the
sample becoming biased because of a change
in the characteristics of the sample during the
research is greatest in which design?
a repeated measures
b independent groups
c matched pairs
d independent measures.

a) repeated measures


Later in the year, another researcher wishes
to do further research and feels that the data
collected by Professor Plum will be useful. The
kind professor gives his colleague a list of the
students and the data they collected. Which
further ethical consideration(s) of participant
rights has/have now been violated?
a voluntary participation in research
b informed consent from participants
c confidentiality of participant information
d both informed consent and confidentiality of
participant information.

d) both informed consent and confidentiality of
participant information.


Professor Peabrain is researching the effects of
increased vitamin intake through drinking carrot
juice on the functioning of the rods in the eye. He
gives his experimental group 125 ml of carrot
juice each day while he gives the control group
carrot juice that has been boiled and cooled so
that the vitamins are inert. The purpose of the
control group in this experiment is to:
a show the effects of the independent variable
b control or eliminate the effects of participant
c form a basis for comparison with the
experimental group
d show the effects of the dependent variable.

c form a basis for comparison with the
experimental group


Which of the following is unlikely to be true for a
person in a (heightened awareness) altered state
of consciousness?
a The person may find it difficult to judge the
passage of time with accuracy.
b The person may be more sensitive to noise
than in normal waking consciousness.
c The person may be more (or less) emotional
than they are when in normal waking
d The person may find that they are paying
selective attention to several automatic

d. The person may find that they are paying
selective attention to several automatic


Johannes is sitting in class, trying to listen to
what the teacher is saying but he is also aware
that he is feeling warm in the sunshine, he
is looking forward to a game of tennis after
school, the new girl in the row in front of him has
sparkling highlights in her hair and the chair he’s
been sitting in for the double lesson has a hard
seat! Johannes is most likely experiencing:
a normal waking consciousness.
b an altered state of consciousness showing
reduced awareness.
c an altered state of consciousness showing
heightened awareness.
d distortions of cognition and perception.

b an altered state of consciousness showing
reduced awareness.


The best physiological measure to use to examine
whether a person meditating had entered an
altered state of consciousness would be:
a an EEG.
b an EOG.
c body temperature.
d galvanic skin response.

a an EEG.


Which of the following statements supports the
survival theory of sleep?
a Animals that are less susceptible to
predators and require less time to forage for
food tend to sleep for longer periods than
those that are more susceptible and need
more time to find food.
b Animals with higher metabolic rates
need more sleep than those with a lower
c Growth hormone is released during stages 3
and 4 sleep and this aids growth.
d Sleeping enhances m