Flashcards in Psychology of Gender Exam #1 Deck (51)
Refers to the biological categories of female and male, categories distinguished by genes, chromosomes, and hormones.
Culture has NO influence over ____;
____- is defined in the same way across cultures.
A much more fluid category, it refers to the social categories of male and female.
___differs across cultures because each society has its own prescriptions for how women and men should behave.
___- categories are influenced by society, culture, and time.
When the expectations of one role conflict with the expectations of another role.
Ex. In a large lecture class, the expectation of a student is to sit quietly in the class and listen, a passive role that may conflict with the active aspect of the male gender role.
Expectations within a role conflict.
Ex. A female is expected to be emotional and express their feelings but also be sensitive to the needs of others. What about when she meets the expectation of expressing her emotions to her husband but hurts his feelings in the process?
o Refers to the expectations that go along with being male versus female
The affective (feeling) component of our attitude toward sex category is called _______or prejudice toward people based on their sex.
Can have a negative or positive affect (hiring someone for being female)
The cognitive component of our attitude/beliefs towards sex.
These terms refer to our beliefs about the features of the biological or psychological categories of male and female.
Sex Stereotype or Gender-Role Stereotype
The behavioral component of our attitude toward men and women.
Involves the differential treatment of people based on their biological sex.
Often a result of both sexism and gender-role stereotyping.
Ex. If you fire the male nanny you dislike men as nannies and you doubt his competence because he is a man.
People who believe the two sexes are fundamentally the same.
Believe there are fundamental differences between men and women, however they argue the “difference” DOES NOT mean “deficit”.
Gender is created by the perceiver: facts about gender DO NOT exist; only interpretations do.
• Is the variable being tested in a scientific experiment.
• It is dependent' on the independent variable.
• As the experimenter changes the independent variable, the change in the dependent variable is observed and recorded.
• Effect of the IV on the participants.
• In an experiment, the investigator manipulates this variable.
aka third variables) are variables that the researcher failed to control, or eliminate, damaging the internal validity of an experiment.
• Variable that is a permanent characteristic of the person and may affect the person’s response to another variable.
• Independent variables are NOT changeable, such as sex, race, and ethnicity.
• It is the characteristic of something to which people respond.
• Variable that can be manipulated in an experiment.
• Ex. When sex is a ____ variable, random assignment can take place and a true experiment can be conducted.
Stimulus or Target Variable
• The confidence that the true cause of the effect is being studied.
• The extent to which change in the DV is due to change in the IV
• Generally HIGH in Efficacy studies (LAB)
• Not really generalizable
• Generalizability of results
• Generally HIGH in EFFCIVNESS studies (REAL WORLD)
Variables Confounded with Sex?
Status and Gender Role
• People want to behave in in socially desirable ways in which they appear normal and likeable.
• Ways in which participants behave in experiments to give socially desirable answers.
Social Desirability Response Bias
• Occurs when norms (social expectations) for one’s gender role have negative consequences for the individual.
• Likely to occur when gender role expectations conflict with naturally occurring tendencies or personal desires.
• Ex. A man who wants to pursue dance or a women who does not want to have children.
• Suggests that strain arises when you fail to live up to the gender role that society has constructed.
• Ex. The man who is not athletic, the man who is unemployed, the woman who is not attractive, the women who does not want to have kids.
Self-Role Discrepancy Theory
• Strain arises because the gender roles society instills contain inherently dysfunctional personality characteristics.
• Ex. The male gender role includes the inhibition of emotional expression, which is not healthy, similarly, the female gender role includes dependency, which also may not be adaptive.
Socialized Dysfunctional Characteristic Theory
• Exhibiting the gender-role characteristics that correspond with our sex.
• Ex. A male who scored masculine and a female who scored feminine
• Exhibiting gender role characteristics that correspond with the OTHER sex.
• Ex. A masculine female and a feminine male.
• People who believe that masculinity and femininity are categories constructed by society and that each society may have a different definition of masculinity and femininity.
• Personality orientation characterized by a focus on the self to the exclusion of others.
• Personality orientation characterized by a focus on OTHERS to the exclusion of the self.
• Maintains that men’s sphere is work and women’s sphere is home.
• The implicit assumption is that men have greater power than women.
Traditional Gender Ideology