Who developed Psychosocial Theory?
Where did Erik Erikson grow up?
What brought Erikson to Vienna where Freud was?
Erikson was hired to teach art and other subjects to children of Americans who had come to Vienna for Freudian training
How was Erikson admitted into the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute?
Through his teaching job in Vienna
What brought Erikson to America?
The facist movement
Erikson was Jewish
What aspects of Freudian theory did Erikson agree with?
1. Psychosocial structures
2. Unconscious and Conscious
4. Psychosexual Stages
5. Normal-Abnormal continum
6. Psychoanalytic Methodology
How did Erikson expand upon Psychoanalytic?
1. Developed a set of eight psychosocial stages covering the lifespan
2. Studying the development of identity
3. Developing methods that reach beyond the structured psychoanalytic setting with adults
Example of how Erikson intergrated psychoanalytic with psychosocial:
Psychoanalytic: A toddler's oral pleasure when making speech sounds
Psychosocial: the role of speech communication in shaping his relationship with his parents and significant others
What is cogwheeling of life cycles?
An adult's needs to become caretakers coincide with children's needs for caretaking
What psychoanalytic stage coincides with the psychosocial stage of Trust vs. Mistrust?
Oral-respiratory and sensory-kinesthetic
What psychoanalytic stage coincides with the psychosocial stage of Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt?
Anal-urethral and muscular
What psychoanalytic stage coincides with the psychosocial stage of Initiative vs. Guilt?
Infantile-genital and locomotor
What psychoanalytic stage coincides with the psychosocial stage of Industry vs. Inferiority?
What psychoanalytic stage coincides with the psychosocial stage of Identity and Repudiation vs. Identity Difussion?
What psychoanalytic stage coincides with the psychosocial stage of Intimacy and Solidarity vs. Isolation?
Psychosocial Stages (in order):
Basic Trust Versus Basic Mistrust (birth to 1 year)
Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt (2-3 years)
Initiative Versus Guilt (4-5 years)
Industry Versus Inferiority (6-Puberty)
Identity and Repudiation Versus Identity Diffusion (Adolescense)
Intimacy and Solidarity Versus Isolation (Young Adulthood)
Generativity Versus Stagnation and Self-Absorption (Middle Adulthood)
Integrity Versus Despair (Late Adulthood)
Stage 1: Basic Trust Versus Basic Mistrust (Birth-1 year)
Main task: aquire a favorable ration of trust to mistrust
Trust can predict that an infants mother will come back.
Mistrust detects impending dangers or discomfort and discriminate between honest and dishonest persons.
Stage 2: Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt (2-3 years)
New neurological and muscular development
anxiety over seperation from parents and pooping themselves
Stage 3: Initiative Versus Guilt (4-5 Years)
Taking initiative, forming and carrying out goals, and competing
severe conscience that punishes sexual fantasies and immoral thoughts or behavior
Stage 4: Industry Versus Inferiority (6-Puberty)
Children are excited about knowledge and work (I am what I learn) and being successful
Failure brings feelings of inadequacy and inferority
Stage 5: Identity and Repudiation (truthfulness) Versus Identity Diffusion
Integrate the various identifications they bring from childhood into a more complete identity
teenagers are trying out new identities through the identities of their different peer groups
Stage 6: Intimacy and Solidarity vs. Isolation
Only if a well-intergrated identity emerges from Stage 5 can intimacy with others be possible
Intimacy and "us against them"
failed attempts at intimacy that lead to retreatment
Stage 7: Generativity Versus Stagnation and Self-Absorption
"Interest in establishing and guiding the next generation"
lack of generativity equals a lack in psychological growth
Stage 8: Integrity Versus Despair
Have to live with what you built over lifetime, ideally integrity
Regret for what one has or has not done in lifetime
How might psychosocial theory be applied in the real world?
Couselors draw on his work on adolescence to help young people successfully make personal and occupational decisions
What was revolutionary about Erikson that influences today's work in development?
Erikson included the idea that development continues throughtout adult life.
What is the focus of new contemporary research on Erikson's work?
Because more teens go to college now, this period is considered the time between late teens and mid-twenties that is characterized by teens entering into adult world
What were the mechanisms (broad ideas) of development for Erikson?
Physical maturation writes the general timetable for development.
Culture nurtures or destroys
Development is the resolution of conflict at different stages
What was the specific mechanism of development in Erikson's theory?
Play: imagination to try out ways of mastering and adapting to the world
Rituals: bring humans in every stage into the cultural mainstream and provide ready-made solutions to problems
What were Erikson's positions on developmental issues?
Optimistic view of human nature
Nature determines sequence of stages
Development is a lifelong process
Strength of Psychosocial Theory:
Expansion of Psychoanalytic Theory
Broad Perspective given to children's behaviors
Explain Erikson's Expansion of Psychoanalytic Theory:
-psychosocial to the psychoanalytic
-cutural to the biological
-ego identity to the ego defenses
-normal to the abnormal
-cross-cultural to the culture-specific
-child observations to adults' reconstructions from childhood
-adult development to child development
emphasis on cultural factors and life-span devleopment was especially important for Development as a field
Explain Erikson's Broad Perspective of Psychoanalytic Theory:
Broad perspective he gives to children's behavior
Behavior influenced by his: history, present situation, and the past and present history of his own culture and world
Weakness of Erikson's Psychosocial:
Lack of Systematicity
Lack of Specific Mechanisms of Development
Explain Erikson's Lack of Systematicity
Observations laden with interpretations
Explain Erikson's Specific Mechanisms of Development: