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Flashcards in PT Final Deck (103):
1

Three systems that integrate afferent input to efferent output

vision, peripheral vestibular system(semi circ. canals), somatosensory system (propricoeption, cerebellum)

2

gaze stabilization is

walking while keeping eyes fixed

2

cervico ocular reflex

fixation of eyes while moving neck

3

optokinetic reflex

maintains eye position with movements of the head

4

movement within the labyrinth causes:

eye moevements and postural adjustments

5

what is the NS goal in standing biomechanics?

keep the center of gravity centered between the base of support

6

Semicircular canals detect BLANKK acceleration

angular

7

Angular acceleration=

head rotation or change in velocity along a curve

8

Utricle and Saccule detect BLANKK acceleration

linear

9

Linear acceleration =

head velocity along a straight line

10

main purpose of vestibular mechanism is to

maintain visual eye fixation

11

Doll's Head Response

Eyes fixated on a spot and will move in a direction opposite to head movement

12

Utricle and saccule togethere detect

the direction of gravity

13

visual input travels through what tract?

medial fasciculus tract

14

Perception of Motion is the

ability to differentiate the movement in the environment from one's self

15

INput from 6 things allows smooth pursuit to occur

cerebellul, extra ocular eye muscles, cervico-mechano receptors, vestibular apparatus, retina, cervical muscles

16

saccade allows

the ability to focus the eye on an object of interest

17

explain the effect whip lash has on blurry vision

whip lash affects the cervical spine, and the CNS uses cervical muscles to intitiate and brake the head/neck movements

18

cervico occular reflex

maintains eye fixation with neck movement

19

Vistibulo occular reflex

maintains eye posi tion with movement of the head

20

Unilateral or bilateral have increase dizziness?

unilateral due to an imbalance b/t the two vestibular systems.

21

Proprioception

the sense of position, posture, and movement

22

Largest abundance of mechanoreceptors in the spine located?

upper cervical vertebrae

23

The highest concentration of mechanoreceptors is located in what area of a muscle spindle?

belly

24

Muscle mechanoreceptors respond to what changes within the tissue

muscle lengthening

25

Golgi Tendon Organs are located ?

in the junctions of muscles and their tendons

26

mUscle spindles action=

maintain tone and tension in muscles on oppo sides of a joint

27

golgi tendon action=

exert inhibitory effect on contraction of the muscle fibers

28

Type I mechanoreceptors located in what joints?

proximal jts

29

What is the job of type 1 mechanoreceptors?

signal the angle of joint throughout ROM and provide info to determine postural tonic mscl contractions

30

What is the job of type 2 nerve endings?

Provide info about the position of the joint and provide info to activate the phasic muscle actions

31

Where are type 2 nerve endings located?

distal mscls

32

Job of Type III mechanoreceptors

high threshold receptors that are only activated when a high joint stress occurs at end range and provide protection function like GTO

33

JOb of type IV receptors

free nerve endings in ligaments, capsules, fat pads that respond to pain stimuli and generate intense, motor responses in all muscles, protecting and restricting ROM

34

Engram

an appropriate neurologic programming facilitating optimal motor patterns

35

Motor Moron is someone who

has difficulty performing neutral pelvis and lumbar stabilization iexercises

36

Purpose of pertrubations

to increase the speed of contraction and body's reflex response

37

Describe the muscles responsible for static stability

postural muscles composed of red fibers that are found in the deep layers of the neck, spoine, ribs, pelvis

38

How are red muscle fibers (core stabilizers) related to white phasic muscles?

they offere stablity so that the white fiber torque muscles can provide power thorughout movelment

39

INtrinsic stabilizer muscles

muscles that attach directly to the lumbar vertebrae and provide structural stability a segment

40

Examples of intrinsic stabilizer mscls include

psoas, QL, oblique, rapezius, Lats, Transversus,

41

Torque Producers

muscles that produce enought torque to produce movement

42

torque producer muscles include:

ERector spoinae, Recut abdominis, external obliques, mid and lower traps, and QL

43

What area of the body has a high level of proprioceptor receptors?

upper cervical

44

What area of the muscle spindle has the highest concentration of mechanoreceptors?

belly

45

muscle spindle mechanoreceptors respond to

change in mscl length.

46

Concentric = BLANKKK, Isometric=BLANKKK,
Eccentric=BLANKKK

Concentric=acceleration
Isometric=stabilization
Eccentric=Deceleration

47

WHat is the goal of sensorimotor training?

The goal is to integrate peripheral function with central nervous system programming

48

Posture

position of the body, relative arrangement of body parts, or charactertistic manner of bearing one's body

49

Good Posture

state of muscular and skeletal balance that protects sturcture of body against injury while working and muscles functiona nd visceral organs function most efficiently

50

Postural fault

body parts position that produces increased strain on supporting structures and less efficent balance of body over its base of support

51

Adaptive shortness

tendency for shortened muscle to remain in shortened position

52

stretch weakness

weakness of muscle from remaining in a lengethened condition beyond their neurtal physiolgocial resting position

53

tight weakness

muscles kept in a habitually shortened position lose their elasticity and test strong only in shortened position, not lengthened!

54

Active insufficiency

muscle which shortens over 2+ joints reaches a length at which it can no longer generate useful force

55

Active insufficiency applies to what muscles

muscles that cross 2 joints ONLY

57

Passive insufficiency

When full ROM is limited by muscles length more than ligaments

58

Postural pain syndrome

is pain due to mechanical stress when maintaining faulty posture for prolonged time

59

Postural dysfunction

adaptive shortening and muscle weakness form prolonged poor posture, contracutre, or adhesions during tissue healing

60

How does the gravitational line lie in relation to the ankle

anterior to ankle joint

61

ankle gains stability through

soleus and plantar flexors

62

how does gravitation line lie in relation to knee?

anterior, keeps knee in extension

63

With knee fully extended, what muscles keep knee stable?

NONE!

64

with knee flexed what muscles keep knee stable?

quads, line moves posterior ot knee joint

65

when gravitational line passes posterior to hip AOM, what happens?

pelvic tilt

66

When line passes posteriorly, what is provided to keep the hip joint stable?

iliofemoral ligament

67

when line passes anteriorly what is requrired to maintain stability?

glutes/hip extensors

68

what muscles provide stability when gravity line shifts to sides of a vertebral body?

contralateral muscles

69

gravitational line should travel through what area of the upper cervical/skull?

anterior to CO -C1

70

what muscles contract to keep the head balanced?

posterior cervical muscles

71

what structure keeps the motion of the head in control in full FLEXION

ligamentum nuchae

72

Differences b/t phasic and postural muscles (8 differences)

capillary network, treatment, responses to dysfunction, energy metabolism, fuel source, fatigueability, metabolic processes, and speed of contraction

73

signs of transverse abdominis being lengthened or inhibited

navel out

74

overactivity of hamstrings in distal 1/3=

weak glutes

75

shoulder stabilizers weak=

abduction, elvation, winging of scap

76

Adductor notch" may suggest what pathology?

hypertonicity of short adductors distally and a hip dysfunction/pathology

77

external rotation of the leg suggest what muscle is tightended?

piriformis

78

scapular protraction of the medial border or winging suggests?

weak SA, tight pecs, tight upper traps, and levator,

79

Very prominent TL erectors=

weak abs, weak glutes, tight psoas, tight erectors

80

rotation of pelvis could be assoc. w what mscls?

QL, hamstrings, jt dysfunction, tight iliopsosas

81

palm facing posteriorly may indicate what dysfun.

tight interanal rotators

82

positive test in the trunk curl up=

feet come off the ground indicating a tight ilipsoas and abs

83

what is a posititve test for push up

scapula winging to test shoulder girdle stability

84

hip abduction positive test

looking for hip hiking, extern rotation, pelvis shaking,

85

purpose of hip abduction test

hip joint mobility, pelvis stability, glut med weakness, QL hyperactivity, TFL, psoas, adductor piriformis too active

86

Head flexion purpose/pos test

chin juts forward/shakes, helps ID weak neck flexors and tight SCM

87

shoulder abduction positive test

shoulder hiking, upper trap contraction before 60 degrees of abduction indicating abnormal G/H translation

88

layered syndrome

alternating hypertrophy then hypotrophy as you move superior to inferior

89

Describe the effect exercise can have on stopping the progression of scoliosis

Exercise alone will not halt the progression of or correct moderate/severe scoliosis but may help with mild idiopathic scolisos

90

How do you exercise a scoliosis curve?

stretch the short concave muscles, and strengthen the elongated convex side

91

spinal bracing should be used for curves that are greater than BLANKK degrees

40 degrees

92

Spinal bracing can also be used for curves that are BLANKK degrees and if progression is blank in one year and there is at lest one year of growth remaining

curves 25-40 if progression is >5 degrees in one year and there is at least one year of growth remaining

93

THe major goal of bracing is to

prevent progression of a curve or give some permanent correction and stabilization

94

Most common form of treatment for scolisosis is a combo of

millwaukee brace and daily exercises for mild to moderate scolisosis with 2 years of growth remaining

95

Which type of brace uses a concept of dynamic correction?

milwaukee brace

96

The milwaukee brace is worn for how long?

23-24 hrs a day for several years until full skeletal maturity

97

milwaukee brace is recommended for curves located in the BLANKK spine where as boston is good for BLANKK curves

milwaukee=upper thoracic
boston= below T8, lumbar

98

components of copes brace

brace, exercise, manipulation, electrical stimulation, heel lifts, nutrition, oculovestibular training

99

main afferent proprioceptive influence of sensorimotor training ocmes from what receptors (3 areas)

foot, SI, and deep neck muscles

100

Poor balance is associated with

low back pain

101

prupose of a functional capacity evaluation

gives objective info for prescribing treatment and monitioring results

102

indications for FCE

subacute, 6-8 weeks since injury, treatment plateaus, difficulty returning to employment,

103

normal ROM for knee flexion flexibility test

140-150 degrees of knee flexion