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Y4 Compendium Exam > PTSD > Flashcards

Flashcards in PTSD Deck (43):
1

What is type 1 trauma?

A single instance of trauma

2

What is type 2 trauma?

Multiple traumas

3

Who distinguished the trauma types?

Terr (1994)

4

What is the difference between Type 2A and 2B traumas?

A - stable background, can talk about the multiple traumas separately
B - too many traumas, they merge into one, might start talking about one and then move on to the next

5

What will a person's response to an event have involved if they have PTSD?

Fear
Helplessness
Horror

6

What are the three subsets of symptoms in PTSD?

Re-experiencing
Avoidance and numbing
Hyperarousal

7

For how long must PTSD symptoms be present for diagnosis?

Longer than a month

8

How long is chronic PTSD?

Longer than three months

9

What does the Ehlers and Clark (2000) model of PTSD involve?

Exposure
Cognitive processing

10

What is the difference between anxiety and PTSD?

Anxiety = future
PTSD = past

11

What are the two processes which lead to a sense of current threat in PTSD according to Ehlers and Clark (2000)?

Idiosyncratic appraisals of the trauma and sequalae (own narrative of what happened)
Re-experiencing of disjointed memories

12

What are the maintaining factors in the Ehlers and Clark (2000) model of PTSD?

Thought suppression
Rumination
Hypervigilance
Avoidance
Safety behaviours
Substance use

13

What may the appraisals involve in PTSD?

The fact that the trauma happened
The meaning of the trauma
Client's response
Perceived response of others
Physical consequences

14

What needs to be considered when investigating appraisals in PTSD?

Have they shattered or confirmed a person's previous beliefs?

15

What are the possible forms of intrusive memories?

Rumination
Pictures, sounds, smells, tastes
Emotion without recollection
Physiological sensations
Dreams
Flashbacks

16

Why is it important to investigate recall in PTSD?

Disjointed memory
Confusion about the order
Missing details
False information

17

What are the goals of treatment in Ehlers and Clark's (2000) model?

Elaborate on the traumatic memory
Identify and modify appraisals of the trauma
Discriminate triggers
Reduce symptoms
Give up coping strategies

18

What is the acronym for treatment goals in Ehlers and Clark (2000)?

EIDRG

19

What areas need to be explored when assessing PTSD?

Content of the intrusions
Worst moments
Misinterpretations of symptoms
Quality of the memory
What do they do when memories pop into head? What do they avoid? What do they do instead?

20

What is the treatment plan for PTSD?

Cognitive assessment
Revisit traumatic memory and ID hotspots
Address hotspots one at a time
Update hotspots
Continue to work with cognitive appraisals and triggers

21

What techniques can be used for cognitive appraisals?

Evidence for/against
Behavioural experiments
Advantages/disadvantages
Pie charts
Surveys
Info from other sources
Guided imagery

22

What outcome measure can be used in PTSD?

Impact of Event Scale Revised

23

What is one of the common problematic goals in PTSD?

Wanting to go back to how they were before the trauma.

24

What is a way of overcoming the want to go back to how they were before the trauma?

Looking at what they have gained as trauma will always change you.

25

What can be a helpful thing to consider when looking at trauma and resilience?

A previously resolved trauma, how they coped and offer hope for this one.

26

How does trauma change autobiographical memory?

People will think that before the trauma everything was fine and they were happy-go-lucky and carefree. This is not usually the case and thought needs to be changed.

27

What might be helpful for someone to develop before addressing traumatic memories?

An anchor.

28

What is an anchor?

A safe subject with which someone can ground themself.

29

Give 2 grounding techniques.

Name and describe things in this room - use all senses.
Take shoes off and feel feet on the floor

30

What is BASICPH?

Behaviour
Affect
Somatic
Information
Cognition
Physical

31

Why do we talk about trauma?

To give it new meaning

32

In what order do you discuss the trauma?

Start post-trauma and make clear that it has finished
Move closer to reinforce the ending
Proceed through the incident with caution
Normalise and be curious about the circumstances leading to the event

33

What are the two stages to trauma treatment?

Stabilisation
Processing

34

What is stabilisation?

An understanding of the body's responses and how to manage them

35

What can be helpful for avoidance in PTSD?

Gradual exposure.

36

Outline the three stage to gradual exposure for PTSD.

Imaginal
In reality with therapist
In reality with supportive carer

37

List 4 stabilisation techniques.

Lightstream
Pendulating
Calm place
Resource installation

38

What is thought suppression and how could you explain it?

Don't think of a pink elephant

39

What are some hints for hot spots?

Quiet
Very emotional
Gestures
Skipping

40

How can you update trauma memories?

Identify evidence against appraisals of worst memories

41

How do we work with triggers for intrusions?

Identify them
Stimulus discrimination - what is NOW and what was THEN? - self talk, behavioural experiments, practise

42

How can we work with appraisals related to guilt?

Pie charts of responsibility
Compassion

43

How can we work with appraisals related to anger?

Letter writing
Empty chair
Cost/benefit of being angry/forgiveness/letting go