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DL MBCHB 1 Principles > Public Health > Flashcards

Flashcards in Public Health Deck (37)
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1

What is the "Definition" of Public Health?

The art and science of preventing disease, promoting health, and prolonging life through organised efforts of society.

2

What is Public Health?

Interventions aimed at protecting and promoting the health of a population.

3

Describe Immunisation.

- Prevention of disease.
- Direct and Indirect protection. (Herd Immunity).

4

Why is Immunisation important?

- Uptake rates crucial.
- Communicable disease major killer in developing countries.
- Many millions of deaths are preventable.
- Political/Economical barriers.

5

How do we deal with Outbreaks?

- Surveillance.
-Sharing information.
- Emergency response plans.
- Vaccines.
- Treatments.
- Communication.

6

What are Screening Programmes used for?

- Pick up disease before symptoms present.
- Identify risk factors.
- Identify high-risk groups.
- Give preventative treatment.
- Intervene early.
- Reduce Morbidity and Mortality.

7

What does Public Health aim to do about outbreaks and disease?

- Educate people.
- Regulate threats.
- Prevent risk and disease.

8

How can we Educate People?

- Programmes in Schools.
- TV.
- Press Advertising.

9

How can we Regulate Threats?

- Reduction of fat in food.
- Seat belts in cars.
- Smoking bans.

10

How can we Prevent Risk and Disease?

- Prescribing statins to lower cholesterol.
- Healthy Living advice.
- Screening programmes.

11

A different approach?

- Social Prescribing. (not just drugs)
- Healthy Living Initiatives.
- Cultural Health and Wellbeing.

12

Who is most affected by changes in food prices?

- Low-income groups.

13

We need to think of population in terms of?

- Nutrition and Health.
- Environment and Ecology.
- Economy and Food supply.
- Society and Ethics.

14

How can we reduce Green House Gas Emissions GHGE?

- Reduce waste.
- Technological approaches.
- Behavioural approaches.

15

Define Food Insecurity.

- Restricted access to nutrient dense foods.

16

Describe Over-Consumption.

- High volumes of foods that are high in energy but low in other nutrients.

17

What are the consequences of Under-nutrition.

- Decreased cognitive development and economic productivity.
- Increased susceptibility to Acute morbidity, Chronic diseases and Mortality.

18

What UK Populations are at Risk?
(Availability, Access, Affordability)

- Low income.
- Dependent on others.
- Ethnic minorities.
- Psycho-social problems.
- Fad diets.

19

Why does the population have an increased risk of Obesity.

- More cheap, palatable and energy dense food.
- Increased distribution.
- Increased persuasive and pervasive marketing.

20

What are some of the Medical consequences of obesity?

- Stroke.
- Coronary heart disease.
- Diabetes.
- Cancer.

21

Risks associated with maternal obesity.

- First trimester and recurrent miscarriage.
- Infant birth defects.
- Stillbirth.
- Neonatal death.

22

Describe dietary needs in infancy.

Energy and Essential Nutrients to:
- Maintain growth and development.
- Replace losses.
- Permit metabolic functions.
- Develop immunity.

23

How long does WHO recommend Breast feeding for?

- First 6 months of life.

24

Too early or inappropriate weaning will impact on?

- Faltering growth.
- Infection.
- Poorer gut development.
- Eczema/allergy.
- Obesity.

25

Name Childhood non-communicable diseases.

- Dental caries.
- Anaemia.
- Obesity.
- Eating disorders.
- Behavioural/academic/emotional problems.

26

* Epidemiology

- Study of frequency, distribution and determinants of disease in a population.

27

* Epidemiological triangle

- Vector - Food - Environment

28

* Incidence

- No. of new cases of disease in a population divided by the No. of persons with risk of developing the disease in the same population.

29

* Prevelance

- No. of cases of disease present in a population divided by the No. of persons with risk of having disease in the same population.

30

* Negative predictive value

- Testing true negatives/true negatives
- Proportion of those who test negative who actually do not have the disease.