Pulmonary 12% Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pulmonary 12% Deck (57):
1

Pneumonia pathogen MC in alcoholics

Klebsiella pneumoniae

2

Pneumonia pathogen MC in COPD

Haemophilus pneumoniae

3

Pneumonia pathogen MC in cystic fibrosis

Pseudomonas

4

Pneumonia pathogens MC in postsplenectomy (3)

Encapsulated organisms
Strep pneumoniae
Haemophilus pneumonia

5

Pneumonia pathogen MC in leukemia, lymphoma

Fungus

6

Pneumonia pathogen MC in children less than 1 yrs old

RSV

7

Pneumonia pathogen MC in children less than 2 yrs old

Parainfluenza virus

8

Current jelly sputum

Klebsiella pneumoniae

9

Rust colored sputum

Strep pneumoniae

10

Bullous myringitis seen in ___ pneumonia

Mycoplasma

11

Atypical pneumonia xray shows:

segmental unilateral lower lung zone infiltrates
OR diffuse infiltrates

12

Tx for healthy outpatient pneumonia

Macrolide (clarithromycin, azithromycin)
OR doxycycline

13

Tx for pneumonia in pts w/ underlying chronic disease

Fluroquinolone (levofloxacin, moxifloxacin)
OR beta-lactam (cefriazone, cefataxime) + macrolide (azithromycin)

14

Tx for atypical pneumonia (Mycoplasma, Legionella)

Erythromycin OR doxycycline
Tetracycline (Chlamydia)

15

Tx for influenza A

oseltamivir
rimantadine

16

Pneumonia pathogen MC in HIV

Streptococcus

17

Pneumocystis jiroveci is MC opportunistic infection in HIV pts w/ CD4 counts ____

less than 200

18

Pneumocystis pneumonia xray shows:

diffuse or perihilar infiltrates. NO effusions

19

Tx for Pneumocystis pneumonia

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim)

20

T/F: Prophylaxis against pneumocystis pneumonia is recommended in all patients with CD4 count less than 150

False. CD4 less than 200

21

Name the TB drug(s) with these side effects:
Hepatitis

INH
RIF

22

Name the TB drug(s) with these side effects:
Peripheral neuropathy

INH
Coadminister vit B6 (pyridoxine) to reduce risk

23

Name the TB drug(s) with these side effects:
Orange body fluids

RIF

24

Name the TB drug(s) with these side effects:
Optic neuritis (red/green vision loss)

EMB (ethambutol)

25

Name the TB drug(s) with these side effects:
flu symptoms

RIF

26

Tx of bacterial acute bronchitis

1st line: 2nd gen cephalosporin (cefuroxime)
2nd line: 2nd gen macrolide or Augmentin

27

MC cause of acute bronchiolitis

RSV

28

Tx of RSV

ribavirin

29

Administration of this vaccine has decreased incidence of epiglottitis in children

H. Influenzae type B

30

Tx of epiglottitis

Broad spectrum 2nd and 3rd gen cephalosporin (cefotaxime, ceftriaxone)

31

MC cause of croup

Parainfluenza virus 1 + 2

32

Xray of croup shows:

Steeple sign (subglottic narrowing)

33

Harsh, barking, seal-like cough

Croup

34

Carcinoid syndrome = (5)

flushing, diarrhea, telangiectasias, wheezing, hypotension

35

SPHERE of Lung Cancer Complications

SVC syndrome = compression of SVC --> plethora, HA, AMS
Pancoast tumor = tumor of lung apex --> Horner syndrome, shoulder pain
Horner syndrome = unilateral facial anhidrosis, ptosis, miosis
Endocrine = Carcinoid syndrome --> Flushing, diarrhea, telangeictasias
Recurrent Laryngeal nerve --> hoarseness
Effusions = exudative

36

Tx of bronchiectasis

Amoxicillin, Augmentin, Bactrim, Cipro

37

Parenchymal bullae, subpleural blebs are pathonomonic with ___

emphysema (COPD)

38

Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency associated with ___

COPD

39

Transudate effusion associated with

increased hydrostatic or decreased oncotic pressure (CHF, atelectasis, renal/liver disease)

40

Exudate effusion associated with

leaky capillaries (infection, malignancy, trauma)

41

Light's Criteria determines ___
1.
2.
3.

Exudate if meets any 1 of the following:
1. Pleural fluid LDH:serum LDH > 0.6
2. Pleural fluid protein:serum protein > 0.5
3. Pleural fluid LDH > 2/3 upper limit of normal for serum LDH

42

Pulmonary HTN auscultation finding

narrow splitting
accentuation of 2nd heart sound
systolic ejection click

43

Name the pneumoconioses:
Small opacities prominent in upper lung fields

Cola workers' pneumoconiosis

44

Name the pneumoconioses:
Small rounded opacities throughout lung, hilar lymph nodes calcified

Silicosis

45

Name the pneumoconioses:
Interstitial fibrosis, PLEURAL THICKENING, calcified plaques on diaphragms/lateral chest wall
reticular linear patter w/ basilar predominance, opacities, honeycombing

Asbestosis

46

Name the pneumoconioses:
Diffuse infiltrates and hilar adenopathy

Berylliosis (high tech fields)

47

Tx of Pertussis

erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin

48

Name the pneumoconioses:
reticular linear patter w/ basilar predominance, opacities, honeycombing

Asbestosis

49

Lupus pernio is pathognomonic for ___

Sarcoidosis
= violaceous, raised discoloration of nose, ear, cheek, chin (like frost bite)

50

Tx of sarcoidosis

oral corticosteroids

51

MC cause of acute bronchitis

Adenovirus

52

MC cause of laryngotracheitis

(Croup) Parainfluenza

53

MC cause of acute epiglottitis

H. Influenza type B

54

Tx of pulmonary hypertension

Vasodilators:
1. Calcium channel blockers
2. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors
3. Prostacyclins
4. Endothelin receptor antagonists
O2 therapy, anticoag

55

SE of streptomycin

Nephrotoxicity
Ototoxicity

56

cause of pneumonia that is associated with bullous myringitis (vesicles on the TM)

Mycoplasma pneumonia

57

lung infection associated with thick brown sputum, eosinophilia, and culture showing large septate hyphae

Aspergillus