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Flashcards in Pediatrics Deck (53):
1

A 3rd fontanelle along sagittal suture is associated w/ ___

trisomy 21

2

Fluid accumulation under scalp secondary to birth trauma

Caput succedaneum

3

Best way to assess newborn hearing

Auditory brain stem response
Evoked otoacoustic emission testing

4

Gray/pale yellow spots at periphery of iris =
Associated w/ ___

Brushfield spots
Down syndrome

5

Choanal atresia or stenosis
Dx established by:
Confirmed with:

Inability to pass small caliber catheter

Axial CT

6

Pierre-Robin syndrome 1st recognized by ___.

small mandible and tongue
Clefted soft palate

7

Severely scaphoid belly + respiratory distress suggest ____.

diaphragmatic hernia

8

Delayed stool (>24 hrs after birth) may indicate ___

Hirschsprung disease

9

Tx of vaginal adhesions (fused introitus)

Application of estrogen or beclomethasone cream x 5-10 days

10

Dropping infant's head 1-2 cms, infant with abduct at shoulders and elbow w/ spreading and extending of fingers --> adduction and flexion

Disappears by ___

Moro/startle reflex

3-4 months of age

11

Earliest reflexes

Sucking, rooting

12

Palmar and plantar grasp disappears by ___

4 months

13

Dx of Congential Adrenal Hyperplasia

17-Hydroxyprogesterone

14

Name the chromosomal abnormalities:
Tall, thin, long limbed --> obese in adulthood
Ataxia, expressive language disorders
Males: small penis, hypogonadism, scant pubic/facial hair, gynecomastia
Females: Eunuchoid habitus

Klinefelter syndrome (XXY)

15

Name the chromosomal abnormalities:
-Short stature, webbed neck, prominent ears, low posterior hairline, broad chest w/ widely spaced nipples
-Visual/spatial perceptive disabilities
-Primary amenorrhea, ovarian dysgenesis, absence of secondary sex characteristics
-Coarctation of aorta, horseshoe kidney, aortic stenosis

Turner Syndrome (OX)

16

Name the chromosomal abnormalities:
Pale, blue irides
-Long narrowed facies, large protruding ears, large protruding jaw, flat feet, hyperextensible fingers
-Mitral valve prolapse
-Prepubertal large gonads

Fragile X syndrome

17

Name the chromosomal abnormalities:
-Large-for-gestational-age infant
-Hypoglycemia during infancy
-Creases and pits in earlobes, asymmetric limbs
-RIsk for Wilms tumor, hepatoblastoma

Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome
Chromosome 11p15

18

Name the chromosomal abnormalities:
-Small for gestational age, hypogonadism
-Small hands, feet, almond-shaped eyes, hypotonia
-Mental retardation, short stature, polyphagia

Prader-Wili Syndrome
Chromosome 15q11

19

Name the chromosomal abnormalities:
-Severe mental retardation, marked developmental delay, poor language skills
-Paroxysmal laughter, tongue thrusting
-Prognathism, seizures, abnormal gait/posturing

Angelman syndrome
Chromosome 15

20

Growth hormone is produced by ___
Stimulated by ___
Suppressed by ___

Anterior pituitary
GH-releasing hormone
Somatostatin

21

Dwarfism that results from mutation in GH receptor

Laron syndrome

22

Which vaccines is CI if allergic to neomycin and streptomycin?

MMR
Inactivated polio

23

Which vaccine is CI if allergic to Baker's yeast?

Hepatitis B

24

Which vaccine is CI if allergic to eggs?

Influenza

25

Which vaccine is CI if allergic to Gelatin?

Varicella

26

Which vaccines is CI if pregnant?

Live vaccines:
HPV
Influenza
MMR
Varicella
Polio

27

T/F: Patients immunize w/ influenza vaccine should avoid family members w/ immunodeficiency.

False. Varicella vaccine.

28

Universal lead screening is recommended for ___

1-2 y/o

29

-No further action required for ____ lead level.
-Prompt close developmental/cognitive monitoring for ___ lead level.
-Treat with chelation for ___ lead level.
- Severe health problems, seizures and coma see in ___ lead level.

-No further action required for <10 ug/dL lead level.
-Prompt close developmental/cognitive monitoring for >14 ug/dL lead level.
-Treat with chelation for >45 ug/dL lead level.
- Severe health problems, seizures and coma see in >70 ug/dL lead level.

30

Garlic breath seen in ___ poisioning

arsenic
organophosphates

31

TCAs cause ___ of EKG.

prolonged QRS complexes

32

Anticholinergic poisioning causes____

warm, dry skin

33

Organic phosphates poisioning causes ___

Salivation, urination

34

Still's murmur:
Loudest at ____
Grade __ to ___ musical/vibratory, (high/low) pitched, early (systolic/diastolic) murmur
Diminished w/ ___.
Accentuated w/ ___.

Apex, left sternal boarder
I and III, high pitched, early systolic
Diminished w/ sitting, standing, Valsalva maneuvers
Accentuated w/ fever

35

Venous hum:
Loudest at ___
Grad __ or ___ musical hum
Diminished w/ ___
Accentuated w/ ___

Left or right infraclavicular area (louder on right)
I or II
Diminished w/ turning head, jugular compression, supine position
Accentuated w/ sitting

36

Pulmonary ejection murmur:
Localized to ___
Grade __ or ___, (soft/harsh) (systolic/diastolic) ejection murmur
Diminished w/ ___
Accentuated w/ ___

upper left sternal border
I or II, soft, systolic ejection murmur
Diminished w/ Valsalva maneuvers
Accentuated w/ supine

37

Tx of Kawasaki disease (mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome)

IVIG + high dose aspirin

38

Only childhood viral exanthem that starts on trunk and spreads to face

Transmitted by ___
Caused by ___

Presentation:

Roseola (6th's disease)

Respiratory droplets
HHV6

High fever for 3-5 days --> rose pink maculopapular blanchable rash

39

Koplik spots = ___
Pathognomonic for ___.

= small red spots in buccal mucosa w/ blue/white pale center

Rubeola (Measles)

40

Name the exanthem:
Mobiliform (maculopapular)brick red rash on face beginning at hairline

Caused by ___

Rubeola (Measles)

Paramyxovirus

41

T/F: Otitis media is MC complication of rubella.

False. Rubeola

42

Name the exanthem:
Pink light-red spotted maculopaular rash on face --> extremities lasting 3 days

Caused by ___

Rubella (German Measles)

Togavirus

43

Name the exanthem:
Teratogenic, especially in 1st trimester.
Causes ___

Rubella (German Measles)

Congenital syndrome: sensorineural deafness, cataracts, TTP (blueberry muffin rash), mental retardation, heart defects

44

Name the exanthem:
Lacy reticular rash on (upper) extremities
Spares palms, and soles

Caused by___

Erythema Infectiosum (5th's Disease)

("slapped cheek" rash on face)

Parvovirus B-19

45

Tdap vaccine is for ___ y/o

> 7 y/o

46

Bart's hemoglobin seen on electrophoresis =

alpha thalassemia

47

Tx of rheumatic fever

PCN G
Erythromycin if allergy

48

MC cause of HTN in children

Dx:

Renal disease

Dx w/ urinalysis --> renal US

49

TORCH infections

Congenital neonatal infections:
TOxoplasmosis
Other: syphilis, varicella, parvovirus
Rubella
CMV* Most COMMON
HSV/Hepatitis/HIV

50

CI for breastfeeding

Active tuberculosis of mother
Galactosemia in infant

51

Classic finding of Reye syndrome

Tx:

URI followed by unresponsiveness

Supportive

52

Family members of pts with pertussis should be treated with ___

azithromycin

53

Obesity in pediatric pts defined as ___

BMI for age > 95th percentile