Flashcards in Pulmonary Diagnostic Testing Deck (55):

0

## What is the calculation for the partial pressure oxygen (PO2) in the alveoli?

### PAO2= (PB-PH20)FIO2-PaCO2/.8

1

## What is the purpose of A-aDO2 (the A-a Gradient)?

### This equation measures the difference between alveolar and arterial PO2

2

## What is the formula to the A-a Gradient?

### A-aDO2= PAO2-PaO2

3

## What is the interpretation of an A-a Gradient of 25-65 mm Hg on 100%?

### Normal Value

4

## What is the interpretation of an A-a Gradient of 66-300 mm Hg?

### V/Q Mismatch

5

## What is the interpretation of an A-a Gradient greater than 300 mm Hg?

### Shunting

6

## What is the difference between the P/F Ratio and the A-a Gradient?

### P(A-a)O2 : 300 means Shunting

7

## Which Pulmonary Diagnostic Testing of 300 signifies ALI?

### P/F Ratio

8

## Which Pulmonary Diagnostic Testing of 300 signifies V/Q Mismatch?

### P(A-a)O2 Gradient

9

## What is CaO2?

### Arterial Oxygen Content

10

## What does measuring CaO2 mean?

### It is the best measurement of oxygen delivered to the tissues, or the best index of oxygen transport; oxygen carried by the hemoglobin and dissolved in the plasma.

11

## What is the formula for CaO2?

### CaO2= (Hb x 1.34 x SaO2) + (PaO2 x .003)

12

## What is the normal value for CaO2?

### 17-20 vol% or 19 vol%

13

## What is CvO2?

### Mixed venous oxygen content

14

## What does the CvO2 mean?

### It tells about the total amount of oxygen carried in the mixed venous blood

15

## How is the CvO2 measured?

### The blood is drawn from the Pulmonary Artery via the balloon-tip, flow directed (Swanz-Ganz) catheter

16

## What is the formula for CvO2?

### CvO2= (Hb x 1.34 x SvO2) + (PvO2 x .003)

17

## What is the normal value for CvO2?

### 14 vol% (12-16 vol%)

18

## When cardiac output decreases , what else decreases?

### CvO2 and SvO2

19

## Normally, what is the pressure on the left ventricle?

### 120/0

20

## What is the mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the systemic arteries?

### 90 mm Hg (120/80)

21

## What is the normal value for the Central Venous Pressure (CVP)?

### 2-6 mm Hg (<10)

22

## What are the normal values of the Pulmonary Artery Pressure (PAP)?

### 25/8 mm Hg (teens)

23

## What are the normal values for the Pulmonary Capillary Wedge Pressure (PCWP)?

### 8 mm Hg

24

## What is the normal values for Cardiac Output (QT)?

### 4-8 L/min

25

## What is Cardiac Index?

### Cardiac Output divided by the Body Surface Area

26

## What is the Cardiac Output divided by the Body Surface Area?

### Cardiac Index

27

## What is a normal adult cardiac index (CI)?

### 2-4 L/min/m2

28

## If the PCWP is high, where is the problem?

### In the left heart

29

## What pressures will be affected if there is a problem in the capillaries?

### Mean Arterial Pressure (systemic)

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## If CVPs are high, where is the problem?

### In the right heart

31

## What pressures will be affected if the problem is in the lungs?

### Pulmonary Artery Pressures (PAP)

32

## What is the C(a-v)O2 (or arterial-venous oxygen content difference)?

### It is CvO2 subtracted from CaO2, and measures the oxygen consumption of the tissues

33

## What indicates a decreasing cardiac output when referring to the C(a-v)O2?

### An increase in the C(a-v)O2; which means a decreasing CvO2

34

## What P/F ratio signifies ALI?

### A ratio less than 300 torr

35

## What P/F ratio signifies ARDS?

### A ratio less than 200 torr

36

## If O2 Consumption (VO2) and O2 Content Difference (C(a-v)O2) are known, what equation will be used?

### QT (Cardiac Output)

37

## What is the QT (Cardiac Output) equation formula?

###
VO2/

C(a-v)O2 (10)

38

## What is the normal value for QT (Cardiac Output)?

### 4-8 L/min (5)

39

## What is QS/QT?

### The shunt equation

40

## What does the QS/QT (shunt equation) mean?

### It is the portion of the cardiac output (QT) that is shunted (QS)

41

## What is the QS/QT (shunt equation) formula?

###
(A-aDO2)(.003)/

(A-aDO2).003 + C(a-v)O2

42

## Calculate the percent (%) shunt when A-aDO2 is 300 torr and the C(a-v)O2 is 3.6 vol%

### .20 or 20% shunt

43

## What are the normal values for the QS/QT (shunt equation)?

### 3-5%

44

## How can the PaO2 value be estimated from the SaO2?

### Subtract 30 from the SaO2

45

## If SaO2 values are 70, 80, or 90, what are the estimated PaO2 values?

### 40, 50, and 60 PaO2

46

## What is the Deadspace to Tidal Volume Ratio?

### It is the percentage of tidal volume that is deadspace (areas of the lung that do not participate in gas exchange) ventilation without perfusion

47

## What are normal values for the VD/VT (deadspace to tidal volume ratio)?

### 20-40%, (up to 60% for ventilator patients).

48

##
What is PaCO2-PECO2 x 100/

PaCO2 ?

### The VD/VT (deadspace to tidal volume ratio) formula

49

## What indicates a deadspace producing disease (pulmonary embolism) when it comes to the deadspace to tidal volume ratio?

### An INCREASE in the VD/VT ratio

50

## Calculate the VD/VT ratio for a patient who has a PaCO2 of 40 torr and a PECO2 of 30 torr.

### .25 or 25%

51

## What is the formula for the Desired Minute Volume equation?

### (Current VE x Current PaCO2) = (Desired VE x Desired PaCO2)

52

## With a minute volume of 8 L/min, the patient has a PaCO2 of 50 torr. What minute volume is required to achieve a PaCO2 of 40 torr?

### VE = 10 L/min

53

## What is the formula for the Desired PaO2 equation?

###
FIO2 x Desired PaO2/

Current PaO2

54