Pulmonary Hypertension Flashcards Preview

Unit 4: Path - The Lung > Pulmonary Hypertension > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pulmonary Hypertension Deck (13):
1

What is the definition of pulmonary HTN?


Pulmonary arterial pressure > 25 mmHg

2


How many grades are in the Heath and Edwards grading system? What is its purpose?


6; Determine if arterial changes of pulm. HTN could be reversed with cardiac surgery; 1 - 3 reversible, 4 - 6 not reversible

3


What causes cor pulmonale?


Increased pressure in the  lesser circulation leads to hypertrophy of the RV

4


A muscular pulmonary artery shows occlusive intimal fibrosis. What is the Heath and Edwards grade?

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Grade 3

5

Plexiform lesions consisting of irregular interlacing blood channels, dilation and thinning of pulmonary arteries is shown. What is the Heath and Edward Grade?


Grade 4

6

What is found in Heath and Edward Grade 6?


Fibirinoid Necrosis of arteries and arterioles

7


What are the conditions that fall under precapillary HTN?

 

  1. L-R cardiac shunt
  2. Primary Pulmonary HTN
  3. Thromboembolic pulmonary HTN
  4. HTN due to fibrotic lung disease and hypoxia

8


What are the conditions that fall under postcapillary HTN?

 

  1. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease
  2. HTN secondary to left-sided cardiac disorders (ie mitral stenosis, aortic coarctation)

9


What causes primary pulmonary HTN? In this case, what do patients normally die from?


Increased pulmonary arterial tone; Cor pulmonale

10

What is Pickwickian Syndrome?


Severe obesity that impedes breathing

11


How can Pickwickian Syndrome and Kyphoscoliosis cause pulmonary HTN?

Both conditions -> Hypoventilation -> Hypoxemia -> Vasoconstriction of Small Pulm. Arteries -> Pulm HTN

12


How does mitral insufficiency lead to pulm HTN?


Mitral stenosis/insufficiency -> LA regurgitation -> Pulm Venous congestion -> Pulm Artery congestion -> HTN

13


A patient presents with progressive dyspnea and CXR reveals scattered lung infiltrates. The biopsy of a pulmonary vein is shown below. What is the Dx? What is the cause of this disease?

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Veno-occlusive disease of the lung; Uncertain etiology but possibly viral infection, toxic agents, and chemoTx