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Flashcards in Pulmonary Physiology Week 2 Deck (191)
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Pulmonary arteries enter each lung at the _____ and travel adjacent to and branch with each airway generation to _________

hilum, respiratory bronchiole


Pulmonary veins carry _____ blood from lungs to ______

oxygenated, left atrium


Left pulmonary veins pass _______ whereas right pulmonary veins pass ______

in front of descending thoracic aorta; behind rt atrium and SVC


Pulmonary capillaries are direct apposed to the _____ and about 0.6 microns thick



What is the normal pulmonary artery pressure [at the level of main pulm artery]?

15 mmHg


Low pre-capillary arterial resistance leads to pulsatile motion in the microvascular bed. This motion is lost in severe __________

pulmonary arterial HTN


Pulmonary vascular resistance is about ____ of systemic vascular resistance. There are no arterioles to regulate blood flow in this system.



As pressure in the left atrium increases, what will happen to pulmonary vascular resistance as a function of increasing pulmonary artery pressure?

will no longer decrease because vascular bed is nearly fully distended


If alveolar pressure is greater than capillary pressure, what happens to capillaries?

they collapse


At what three levels does gas exchange occur?

within the tissues, within the blood and the alveoli (lungs themselves), [from environment into lungs]


Each airway in the respiratory system divides into two daughter airways at each branching points. How many generations branch in the lungs from trachea to alveoli/alveolar sacs?



The first 16 branching generations are the _______. Why is this area referred to as anatomical dead space?

conducting zone; air is passing through but there is no gas exchange


Branches 17-23 are the _______ where alveoli are and gas exchange occurs between blood and lungs

transitional and respiratory zone


True/False: As move down pulmonary tree, diameter of airways gets bigger and length gets shorter.

FALSE, get smaller [but do get shorter]


As move down pulmonary tree, total cross sectional area gets ______

larger [ more branching you have - more cross sectional area you have ]


The bronchi, trachea, bronchioles and terminal bronchioles make up the ________

conducting zone


The respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs make up a functional unit called a _____ and are part of the _____ (final 7 generations)

acinus, respiratory zone


Gas exchange occurs at the _____



The _______ is the entire amount that you can bring into your lungs [volume following MAXIMAL inspiration]

total lung capacity


After maximal expiration, the amount left over is the ______

residual volume


If you expel as much as you can from your lungs that volume is called the ________

vital capacity


Vital capacity is not utilized very often. The volume inspired under normal resting conditions is called the ______

tidal volume


The difference between volume in the lungs at end of tidal volume and 0 is the _______ [ volume remaining at end of normal tidal expiration]

functional residual capacity


_________ is the difference between volume in lungs in normal inspiration vs the maximal amount to inspire [volume inspired during maximal inspiratory effort starting at end of normal tidal inspiration]

inspiratory reserve volume


________ is the difference between volume in lungs at normal tidal expiration and maximal amount expired to get to residual volume [volume expelled during maximal forced expiration starting at the end of normal tidal expiration]

expiratory reserve volume


The ______ is the volume inspired during maximal inspiration starting after at the end of normal tidal expiration

inspiratory capacity (IC)


The inspiratory capacity and functional residual capacity are each about 1/2 of _________. These volumes change based on certain factors however.

total lung capacity.


What happens to the functional residual capacity and inspiratory capacity when you lie down? Why?

inspiratory capacity becomes smaller, whereas functional residual capacity becomes larger. This is because the contents of your abdominal cavity push up against the diaphragm and make it harder to inspire.


Spirometer is handy for measuring lung volumes except for which 3?

residual volume, functional residual capacity, and total lung capacity because you cannot expire all the way down to 0


What are the three alternate ways that functional residual capacity can be measured?

nitrogen washout, helium dilution, plethysmography