Flashcards in Pulmonary Embryology Deck (79)
The _____ is a cartilagenous tube extending from the larynx to the bronchial tubes. Rings of ______ in this structure prevent collapse.
trachea, hyaline cartilage
The ______ is an arrangement of ___ cartilages connected by membranes and ligaments. All of these cartilages are made up hyaline except for _____
larynx, 9, epiglottis
The larynx attaches to the ____ bone _____ [position] and opens into the ______
hyoid bone, superiorly, laryngopharynx
The larynx is _____ continuous with the trachea
What are the three basic functions of the larynx?
provides an airway for breathing, routes food and air, protects vocal cords
The _____ is a _______, dome shaped parition that separates the thoracic from abdominal arteries
The epithelium of the internal lining of the trachea and lungs is derived from the ______
Cartilagenous, muscular and connective tissue of the respiratory system is derived from the _________
The respiratory system develops from the _______ which is an outgrowth from the _____ body wall of the _____ and appears during gestational week ___
respiratory diverticulum, ventral, foregut, 4
The respiratory diverticulum expands _____ and _______ ridges form which separates the _____ from the foregut
caudally, tracheo-esophageal, lung bud
Once the tracheo-esophageal ridges form, the diverticulum is then called the ______ with the _____ portion consisting of the trachea and the _____ portion consisting of the esophagus
tracheo-esophogeal septum, ventral, dorsal
What is the tracheo-esophageal fistula?
an abnormal partitioning of the esophagus and trachea by septum; found in 1/3000 births
86% of tracheo-esophageal fistulas are _____ where the upper esophagus ends in a ______ [artesia], while the lower esophagus forms a fistual with the trachea
type III, blind pouch
The upper esophagus forms fistula in ___ of tracheo-esophageal fistula cases
In ___ of cases of tracheo-esophageal fistula, the esophageal artesia is isolated, whereas in _____ there is no artesia but there is still abnormal communication between the trachea and esophagus
What is the clinical presentation for tracheo-esophageal fistula?
excessive salivation/drooling; choking/aspiration pneumonia; inability to pass feeding catheter into stomach
What 2 characteristics are seen on an x-ray of a pt with tracheo-esophageal fistula?
dilated upper esophageal pouch; increased air in abdomen/stomach
How is tracheo-esophageal fistula diagnosed?
via bronchoscopy (airway endoscopy)
How does tracheo-esophageal fistula lead to polyhydramnios?
amniotic fluid does not pass into stomach
How does tracheo-esophageal fistula lead to pneumonia?
passage of fluid into trachea
What is one possible cause of tracheal stenosis/agenesis?
vascular compromise to the developing trachea
The muscle and cartilage of the larynx forms from the ______ of which pharyngeal arches?
mesenchyme, 4, 6
True/False: The epiglottis is a flexible, cartilagenous flap over trachea and esophagus that is derived from the 6th pharyngeal arch
In gestinational week ___, the laryngeal orifice is seen at the ___ pharyngeal pouch
True/False: Besides the epliglottis, the other laryngeal cartilages are derived from the 4th and 6th pharyngeal arches
When the mesenchyme of the pharyngeal arches proliferates, the _____ changes from a slit into a ____
laryngeal orifice, T-shape
The mesenchyme from the pharyngeal arches differentiates into what three structures?
thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, arytenoid cartilage
The _______ is the site of vocal cord attachment for speech
The ______ is the site of muscle attachment for speech and completely encircles the trachea