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Flashcards in Pulmonary Embryology Deck (79)
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1

The _____ is a cartilagenous tube extending from the larynx to the bronchial tubes. Rings of ______ in this structure prevent collapse.

trachea, hyaline cartilage

2

The ______ is an arrangement of ___ cartilages connected by membranes and ligaments. All of these cartilages are made up hyaline except for _____

larynx, 9, epiglottis

3

The larynx attaches to the ____ bone _____ [position] and opens into the ______

hyoid bone, superiorly, laryngopharynx

4

The larynx is _____ continuous with the trachea

inferiorly

5

What are the three basic functions of the larynx?

provides an airway for breathing, routes food and air, protects vocal cords

6

The _____ is a _______, dome shaped parition that separates the thoracic from abdominal arteries

diaphragm, musculotendinous

7

The epithelium of the internal lining of the trachea and lungs is derived from the ______

endoderm

8

Cartilagenous, muscular and connective tissue of the respiratory system is derived from the _________

sphlancnic mesoderm

9

The respiratory system develops from the _______ which is an outgrowth from the _____ body wall of the _____ and appears during gestational week ___

respiratory diverticulum, ventral, foregut, 4

10

The respiratory diverticulum expands _____ and _______ ridges form which separates the _____ from the foregut

caudally, tracheo-esophageal, lung bud

11

Once the tracheo-esophageal ridges form, the diverticulum is then called the ______ with the _____ portion consisting of the trachea and the _____ portion consisting of the esophagus

tracheo-esophogeal septum, ventral, dorsal

12

What is the tracheo-esophageal fistula?

an abnormal partitioning of the esophagus and trachea by septum; found in 1/3000 births

13

86% of tracheo-esophageal fistulas are _____ where the upper esophagus ends in a ______ [artesia], while the lower esophagus forms a fistual with the trachea

type III, blind pouch

14

The upper esophagus forms fistula in ___ of tracheo-esophageal fistula cases

1%

15

In ___ of cases of tracheo-esophageal fistula, the esophageal artesia is isolated, whereas in _____ there is no artesia but there is still abnormal communication between the trachea and esophagus

4%, H-type

16

What is the clinical presentation for tracheo-esophageal fistula?

excessive salivation/drooling; choking/aspiration pneumonia; inability to pass feeding catheter into stomach

17

What 2 characteristics are seen on an x-ray of a pt with tracheo-esophageal fistula?

dilated upper esophageal pouch; increased air in abdomen/stomach

18

How is tracheo-esophageal fistula diagnosed?

via bronchoscopy (airway endoscopy)

19

How does tracheo-esophageal fistula lead to polyhydramnios?

amniotic fluid does not pass into stomach

20

How does tracheo-esophageal fistula lead to pneumonia?

passage of fluid into trachea

21

What is one possible cause of tracheal stenosis/agenesis?

vascular compromise to the developing trachea

22

The muscle and cartilage of the larynx forms from the ______ of which pharyngeal arches?

mesenchyme, 4, 6

23

True/False: The epiglottis is a flexible, cartilagenous flap over trachea and esophagus that is derived from the 6th pharyngeal arch

FALSE 4

24

In gestinational week ___, the laryngeal orifice is seen at the ___ pharyngeal pouch

5, 4th

25

True/False: Besides the epliglottis, the other laryngeal cartilages are derived from the 4th and 6th pharyngeal arches

TRUE

26

When the mesenchyme of the pharyngeal arches proliferates, the _____ changes from a slit into a ____

laryngeal orifice, T-shape

27

The mesenchyme from the pharyngeal arches differentiates into what three structures?

thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, arytenoid cartilage

28

The _______ is the site of vocal cord attachment for speech

arytenoid cartilage

29

The ______ is the site of muscle attachment for speech and completely encircles the trachea

cricoid cartilage

30

The ______ is the bulk of the front wall and protects the vocal cords

thyroid cartilage