Pulmonary Histology Week 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pulmonary Histology Week 1 Deck (129):
1

German physician _________ first describes and named the ________ and was published in lung diseases and angina pectoris

Hans Kohn, Pore of Kohn

2

The respiratory stem is a combination of _______, _________, _______, and _______

cartilage, elastic fibers, collagen fibers, smooth muscle fibers

3

The concentration of ______ in the respiratory system is inversely proportional to the _____

elastic fiber, diameter

4

Elastic fibers found in lamina propria of the respiratory system run _______

longitudinally

5

The _____ of the respiratory system is mostly circular

smooth muscle

6

The _________ of the respiratory system provides conduit to transfer air

conducting portion

7

How does the conducting portion condition the air?

cleans, moistens, and warms air

8

What are the six cell types in the generic respiratory epithelium?

1) ciliated columnar cells, columnar cells, 2) mucous goblet cells, 3) brush cells, 4) diffuse endocrine or small granule cells, 5) basal cells or immature cells

9

The ______ produce serous secretion

columnar cells

10

The ______ have no cilia yet many microvilli. There are two kinds.

Brush cells

11

Describe the two types of brush cells.

One kind acts like goblet cells releasing mucinogen. Other kind has nerve ending on basal surface.

12

Name the two proposed functions of the nerve endings on the basal surface of some brush cells

sensory receptor for gas volume and o2/co2 conentration; intraepithelial receptor for trigeminal N/sneeze reflex

13

The mucous goblet cells continue until the _________. Describe the two functions.

terminal bronchiole. 1) synthesize mucinogen which when hydrated turns into mucous; 2) trap and remove bacteria/particles; 3)

14

The _________ are the most common types of cells and continue until the respiratory portion.

Ciliated columnar cells

15

In what direction do the cilia of ciliated columnar cells beat?

towards the mouth

16

The ________ are thought to control mucous and seromucous secretion and possibly vessel diameter

Diffuse endocrine or small granule cells

17

The __________ rest on the basement membrane and do not reach lumen and are therefore "psuedostratified." They appear to be stem cells.

Basal cells or immature cells

18

_________ is the abnormal transformation of a tissue to a form which is not normal in response to a disease process, a physical or chemical event

Metaplasia

19

Describe metaplasia in smoker's lungs

Increase in goblet cells in resp epithelium due to pollutants and decrease in cilia due to carbon monoxide

20

In the nasal cavity, the air is filtered, warmed and humidified by the ______

nasal mucosa

21

The ______ is the anterior portion of the nasal cavity

vestibule

22

The nasal fossa contains _____, ______, and _____ conchae AKA _____

inferior, middle, and superior; turbinates

23

The nasal cavity also contains vibrissae and ______ and ______ mucosa

olfactory, respiratory

24

In the lamina propria of the nasal cavity, ______ release IgA and IgE. Describe the action of IgE.

plasma cells. IgE binds to receptors on mast cells and basophils --> inflammatory mediators released

25

Drainage from maxillary sinus infections can be seen below the _________

middle concha

26

Why is the nasal cavity a great site for drug delivery?

There is convenient access to a superficial venous plexus beneath the nasal cavity mucosa

27

_______ are venous plexi located in the lamina propria that enlarge alternately on two sides of nasal cavity.

Swell bodies

28

How often do swell bodies enlarge and why?

about every 30 minutes. The mucosa on occluded side has time to recover from desiccation and help to direct air to olfactory epithelium.

29

The olfactory epithelium is located on the roof of the _______ and on the superior ______

nasal cavity, superior nasal conchae

30

What are the four cell types in the olfactory epithelium?

olfactory cell, substentacular cell, basal cell, and brush cells

31

The olfactory cell has _______ whose _____ surfaces are modified to form olfactory _____ and olfactory _____

bipolar neurons; apical; olfactory vesicle; olfactory cilia

32

The dendrite of the olfactory cell terminates as a _____ olfactory vesicle with _____ cilia

bulbous, non-motile

33

Which respiratory epithelial cell is the stem cell for all olfactory epithelium?

basal cell

34

The __________ of the respiratory epithelium allows for olfactory adaptation

spatio-temporal patterning

35

Olfactory epithelium allows direct access to the central nervous system via _____

cranial nerve I

36

Axons of the bipolar neuron (olfactory cell) are surrounded by a cytoplasmic extension of olfactory _______ which pierce the _____ plate of the _____ bone into the olfactory bulb

myelin-producing cells, cribriform, ethmoid bone

37

In the nose, the _____ secretes IgA that is transported into the lumen of the ______.

plasma cell, olfactory gland

38

IgA causes the olfactory gland of Bowman to release secretory product containing ______

odorant-binding protein

39

The supporting cells of the olfactory epithelium have a ____ located, ____ nucleus and a microvilli border

apically, ovoid

40

The __________ binds to the modified cilia of the bipolar neurons

odorant-OBP complex

41

The ______ are airspaces within cranial bone lined with respiratory epithelium

paranasal sinuses

42

What are three clinical correlations involving the paranasal sinuses?

endoscopic sinus surgery, radiofrequency ablation, sinus stents

43

The larynx contains larger ____ plates and smaller _______ plates

hyaline, elastic cartilage

44

The larynx connects what two structures?

trachea and pharynx

45

The _____ has a tracheal and lingual side and contains two types of epithelium along with _______.

epiglottis, elastic cartilage

46

Describe what occurs to the epiglottis when swallowing food.

The backward motion of the tongue forces the epiglottis over the larygneal opening and closes the larynx --> directs food into esophagus

47

The ____ vocal cords contain an upper pair of folds that are covered with _________.

false, respiratory epithelium

48

The ____ vocal cords are covered with ______ due to air movement

true, stratified squamous epithelium

49

____ vocal cords contain muscle while ____ vocal cords contain glands. Neither contain both.

True, False

50

The true vocal cords contain the ______ muscle and _______ composed of elastic fibers

vocalis skeletal, vocal ligament

51

The ______ contains 16-20 rings and bifurcates to form the ______, the one on the ____ side being more vertical. this structure is involved with coughing and swallowing.

tracheae, primary bronchi, right

52

The trachea contains what four structures?

respiratory epithelium, lamina propria, submucosa, and adventitia

53

The respiratory epithelium of the trachea contains a thick _____

basement membrane

54

The lamina propria of the trachea contains ______ and _____ fibers with a well defined _____

collagen and elastic, elastic lamina

55

The submucosa contains _____ glands that can extend in thto the ______

seromucous, lamina propria

56

The adventitia of the trachea contains C-shaped _____ cartilage rings that are closed off posteriorly by ______. The perichondrium fuses with the submucosa and adventitia.

hyaline, trachealis muscle

57

What are the four types of cells that make up the epithelial lining of the trachea?

Columnar ciliated cell, goblet cell, basal cell, and endocrine cell

58

The apical portion of the ______ contains mucus secretion that is released by ______, forming part of a protective mucus blanket

goblet cell, exocytosis into lumen

59

Which cell in the epithelial lining of the trachea does not extend to the free surface?

BASAL CELL

60

The _____ contain small granules and can be observed in the basal region of the epithelium. They are members of the ________ (APUD or ________)

endocrine cell, diffuse endocrine system, amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation

61

The bronchial tree is divided into the _______ which divide into the _______ after entering the lung parenchyma

extrapulmonary bronchi, intrapulmonary bronchi

62

The ______ resemble than the trachae in that the right side is straighter. The right side _____ while the left side bifurcates.

extrapulmonary bronchi, trifurcates

63

The extrapulmonary bronchi are more _____ than intrapulmonary and their ______ rings become irregular. Smooth muscle spirals between the _____ and ____

rigid, cartilaginous, submucosa and cartilage

64

The intrapulmonary bronchi divide into secondary and tertiary levels. The secondary are ____ whereas the _____ and enter the ______

lobar, segmental, bronchopulmonary segments

65

There are ___ secondary intrapulmonary bronchi on the right side and __ on the left side. In terms of tertiary, there are ___ on left side and ___ on right side

3 on right, 2 on left, 8 on left, 10 on right

66

A ________ supplies a pulmonary lobule.

terminal bronchioe

67

The _______ is derived from the terminal bronchiole and organizes a pulmonary ____

respiratory bronchiole, acinus

68

The lamina propria of the mucosa of the bronchi are rich in ______ while the muscularis consists of ______

elastic fibers, spiral smooth muscle

69

The submucosa of bronchi are rich in _____ fibers and contain seromucous glands between _______ and ______ that extend into the lamina propria

elastic, cartilage plates, smooth muscle

70

The bronchus contains a ________ layer and adventitia as well

hyaline cartilage

71

As bronchi become smaller, irregular ______ are observed. Each one consists of ______ surrounded by a bundle of connective tissue fibers blending with the perichondrium.

cartilage plates, hyaline cartilage

72

Bundles of _______ fibers are found between cartilage plates and bronchial mucosa. The mucosa is lined by typical respiratory epithelium

smooth muscle fibers

73

Seromucous glands are found in the lamina propria of bronchi with the ____ projecting beyond the layer of smooth muscle cell bundles. The excretory ducts open up into the _______

secretory acini, bronchial lumen

74

______ lack seromucous glands and have no cartilage. They are by definition 1mm or less long.

Bronchioles

75

Describe the type of epithelium found in bronchioles.

ciliated columnar with goblet cells to a ciliated columnar/cuboidal with Clara cells

76

True/False: Clara cells contain cilia

FALSE, contain short microvilli

77

Clara cells secrete _____ that help protect the mucosa and degrade airborne toxins via ________

glycoprotein, sER p450 cytochromes

78

Clara cells divide to ______ the bronchiole epithelium.

regenerate

79

True/False: As goblet cells decrease, clara cells increase

TRUE

80

Describe the lamina propria of bronchioles

predominantly smooth muscle and elastic fibers. no cartilage or seromucous glands.

81

In a _______ response, the bronchioles constrict, whereas in a ______ response the bronchioles dilate

parasympathetic, sympathetic

82

Describe what occurs in asthma in terms of bronchioles

Asthma leads to widespread constriction of smooth muscle in the bronchioles causing a decrease in diameter

83

Asthma is the most common chronic illness in children, affecting ____. It also affects ___ of adults in North America. In addition, there are _____ deaths annually from asthma in the US

1 in 15, 5%, 5K

84

The respiratory bronchiole contains _______ [type of epithelium] and the lamina propria is very thin smooth muscle and elastic fibers at _______

simple ciliated cuboidal with Clara cells; alveolar openings

85

The alveolar ducts are lined with ________ and contain smooth muscle and a lot of _______ in the lamina propria

squamous epithelium, elastic fibers

86

The squamous epithelium in the alveolar ducts is primarily what kind of cell?

type I pneumocyte

87

The _____ are pouch like evaginations. 85% of these structures develop after birth until age 10

alveoli

88

What are the alveoli lined by?

type I and type II pneumocytes

89

The _______ connects adjacent alveoli and are responsible for _____ when blockage of a small bronchiole occurs

pores of Kohn, collateral respiration

90

The _______ is a type of simple squamous epithelium that is very attentuated and involved in the exchange of gases

type I pneumocyte

91

True/False: Type I pneumocytes cover 95% of alveolar surface and can regenerated when needed

FALSE - can not regenerate

92

The _______ is a type of cuboidal epithelium that covers 5% of the alveolar surface and can regenerate an entire surface

type II pneumocyte

93

Type II pneumocytes produce surfactant. What does surfactant do?

reduces surface tension, stored in lamellar bodies (TEM), present at 26-28 weeks in amniotic fluid

94

______ are found between type I and type II pneumocytes

occluding junctions

95

Describe the pathology of respiratory distress syndrome

Premature infants lack sufficient surfactant and the alveoli collapse. Mom is given glucocorticoids to induce synthesis of surfactant by baby.

96

The interalveolar septum consists of thin and thick portions. Describe the function of the thin portion.

Exchange of gases and blood-gas barrier (4 parts)

97

Describe the 4 parts of the blood-gas barrier

surfactant layer; cytoplasm of type I pneumocyte; fused basal lamina between type I and cap epithelium; cytoplasm of capillary epithelium

98

The interalveolar septum consists of thin and thick portions. Describe the components of the thick portion.

there are continuous capillaries; elastic, collagen and reticular fibers; fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells

99

Describe the function of the interalveolar septum

removes fluid from essentially a closed space through a wicking action

100

Describe lymphatic flow in the interalveolar septum

there are no lymphatics from about the alveolar air sacs distally - fluid then diffuses proximally in the interstitium at about level of resp bronchioles - lymphatics then follow the bronchial tree

101

What are the two types of macrophage (dust cell) populations found in the interalveolar septum?

those associated with alveolar wall (fixed population) and those that roam free

102

Dust cells produce _____

elastase

103

Why do alveolar macrophages in heart failure pts stain positive for Fe?

they have digested RBC's

104

The Pores of Kohn develop at 3-4 years of age. Describe their 2 functions other than collateral ventilation in the case of bronchiole obstruction.

equilibrate the pressure from alveoli to alveoli, allow passage of roaming macrophages

105

The capillary component of the pulmonary vasculature is the site of gaseous exchange and has systolic pressure between _____

15-25mmHg

106

The bronchial arteries have a systemic systolic pressure of _______. They are branches off the _____ and follow the bronchial tree to the level of the _______.

110-135mmHg, thoracic aorta, respiratory bronchioles

107

The bronchial arteries anastomose with branches of the _______

pulmonary vein

108

The pulmonary vein arises from _____ and travels in the connective tissue septa

venules draining the alveolar capillary plexuses

109

What does the connective tissue septum limit?

a pulmonary lobule

110

_______ drain the alveolar capillaries

pulmonary vein plexuses

111

The visceral pleura of the lung is composed of what two components?

fibroelastic connective tissue, simple squamous mesothelial cells

112

The pulmonary vein transports _____ and the pulmonary artery transports ______

oxygenated blood, deoxygenated blood

113

The pulmonary artery enters lung with main bronchi, branches following the bronchial tree, and terminates at the _____ where it gives rise to the _________

respiratory bronchiole, alveolar capillary plexuses

114

Bronchial arteries carry _____ and also follow the bronchial tree. They supply branches to the walls of the bronchi, arteries, veins and connective tissue septa

oxygenated blood

115

The ________ links the superficial (pleural) lymphatic plexus and also drains in the hilum into main lymphatic vessels

deep (pulmonary) lymphatic plexus

116

The most common preventable cause of death is:
a) overweight and obesity
b) alcohol
c) tobacco smoking
d) infectious diseases
e) MVC's

c

117

_______ is a protein that protects the lung from the action of elastase

alpha-1-antitrypsin

118

Destruction of the _______ causes emphysema.

interalveolar wall

119

In emphysema, the fourth leading cause of death in the U.S., there is decreased ______ in the lungs and they are unable to _______

elasticity, recoil

120

True/False: The main issue in emphysema is that you cannot get enough air

FALSE, you can get enough air, you just can't move it

121

Emphysema is associated with exposure to cigarettes and other substances that inhibit ______ - 2 to 3% of cases are hereditary.

alpha-1-antitrypsin

122

____ after you smoke your last cigarette, your blood pressure and pulse go back to normal

20 minutes

123

_____ after you smoke your last cigarette, your hands and feet feel warmer because you circulation has improved

1 hour

124

_____ after smoking your last cigarette, your nicotine and carbon monoxide levels fall and oxygen in your blood returns to normal

8 hours

125

______ after smoking your last cigarette, CO is removed from your body

1 day

126

____ after smoking your last cigarette, nicotine is removed from your body

2 days

127

_____ after smoking your last cigarette, withdrawal symptoms begin to ease

2 weeks

128

_____ after smoking your last cigarette, withdrawal symptoms stop

1 month

129

______ after smoking your last cigarette, your risk of heart attack, cancer and other smoking diseases begins to fall

6 months