Q 1: chapter 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Q 1: chapter 4 Deck (28)
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poison arrow- from hercules


who used poison arrown

maisai of kenya for antelop, amazon jungle for sloths ,monkey


where is the best system to shoot the arrow at

target heart or nervous system


who uses poison dart frog

rainforest tribal ppl in columbia


what is bartrachotoxin

secretion of frogs


what does bathrachotoxin do

acts by holding voltage-gated sodium channels open in nerves and muscles, causing convulsions, paralysis, and heart or respiratory failure.


who uses curare

south americasn tribal ppl- down to the amazon


what is D-Tubocurarine, whrer does it come from

extracted from Strychos toxifera (or Chondrodendron sp.)- type of plant


wht does D-Tubocurarine do aka Curare

acts by blocking acetylcholine neurotransmitter receptors at neuromuscular junctions, causing paralysis and respiratory failure. -prevents na from going in-


how many types of frogs are used for darting a la poison

3; one is golden poison dart frog(can kill 2 elephants),


how are the frogs poisonous

from their diet


in modern times what is curare used for

in surgeries to calm down a muscle- to not put the patient too much to sleep


what does strycnine do

Strychnine extracted from Strychnos nux-vomica acts by blocking the inhibitory action of the neurotransmitter glycine at interneurons in the spinal cord, causing hypersensitivity, convulsions and respiratory failure


what does strychnine do to the interneuron

removes the calming effect of glycine


how is strychnine used today

to killed gophers, squirrels, coyotes- killed vertebrates


what is the number 1 used chemicals used for malicious poisoning of dogs



what chemical was used in world war 1

Chlorine then
Phosgene then
Mustard gas
100,000 dead
1.2 million casualties


what does mustard gas do

Mustard gas was delivered in artillery shells, causing about 80% of the chemical casualties in WWI. It is an oily liquid that acts as a severe irritant, causing blistering, ulceration and tissue death of exposed skin, eyes and respiratory tract.- survivors developped cancer later own


what did the nazis use in the showers

use carbon
monoxide and especially Zyklon B (hydrogen cyanide) in the gas chambers of the death camps.


what are anti- cholinesterase

tabun and sarin hitler didnt use it- was a pestiside first


what happened in the tokyo subway

released serin gas- only 12 death out of 5000 exposed


where else was chemical warfare used- or still are

middle east, iraq, iran, ISIS


The Royal Toxicologist?

Mithridates VI
Used himself as well as others including prisoners as guinea pigs. Messed up childhood because his mom tried to poison him, was successful on his dad. He came up with a concoction of low doses of common poisons to protect from poisons.


Longest proscribed prescription?

poison concoction


Death of Socrates?

Sentenced to suicide using Poison Hemlock. Dies from respiratory paralysis.

Water Hemlock in Saskatoon much more severe.


Claudius of Rome?

Agrippina his fourth wife wanted her son Nero to be emperor so she hired a professional poisoner.

Locusta killed him.


What did locusta use to kill Claudius?

Amanita Phalloides(mushroom).

Contains amanitin, which acts to inhibit protein production by blocking mRNA (gene transcription), causing liver and kidney failure.


Napoleon Bonaparte?

Exiled to St. Helena in 1815, many people wanted him gone forever.
His health declined slowly until he finally died in 1821.
Symptoms (hair loss, neurological signs, photophobia) were consistent with chronic arsenic poisoning (one of the very most common poisons of all time).
Hair samples (?) analyzed recently contained high levels
What was the source?
Possibly accidental – copper arsenate dye (Schweinfurter green) in wallpaper, attacked by molds, produced trimethylarsine gas – associated with arsenic poisonings