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Flashcards in Q-based Deck (72):
1

Where is DA made?

-Ventral Tegmental Area
-Substantia Nigra

2

What things are caused by VTA destruction:
-Hypervigilance
-Depression
-Mania
-ADHD
-Anxiety
-Parkinsonian movements
-Psychosis

Low DA -->
-Depression
-ADHD
-Parkinsonian movements

3

What things are caused by DA excess:
-Hypervigilance
-Depression
-Mania
-ADHD
-Anxiety
-Parkinsonian movements
-Psychosis

-Hypervigilance
-Mania
-Anxiety
-Psychosis

4

How and on what does Reserpine work?

-Inhibits VMAT transport
-Sequesters NE

5

What things caused by low NE:
-Insomnia
-Depression
-ADHD
-Anxiety
-Fatigue
-Agitation
-Mania

-Depression
-ADHD
-Fatigue

6

What things caused by high NE:
-Insomnia
-Depression
-ADHD
-Anxiety
-Fatigue
-Agitation
-Mania

-Mania
-Agitation
-Anxiety
-Insomnia

7

What's the only drug approved to treat Huntington's Chorea?

Tetrabenazine

8

What is Baclofen used for?

Treat spasticity associated w/ ALS

9

What is the only drug that can improve QOL and lifespan of ALS patients?

Riluzole

10

What class of drug is Buproprion?

NDRI Antidepressant

11

In a COPD patient w/ Glaucoma, what are 1st line drugs?
What class?

COPD = no Beta Blockers

Latanoprast, Travoprost, Bimatoprost, Unoprostone isopryl

Prostaglandin analogs

12

Blocking what receptor stops Psychosis?

D2
Mechanism of antipsychotics

13

What class of drug is Tropicamide?

Parasympathetic antagonist

14

What eye muscle is affected in Horner's Sydrome?

Superior palpebral muscle of Muller

15

What class of drug is Pilocarpine?

Muscarinic agonist

16

What is the use and mechanism of Beta Blockers in Opthalmology?
What drugs?

For Glaucoma
decrease aqueous humor production at ciliary epithelium

Timolol, Betaxolol

17

Prostaglandin analog mechanism for treating Glaucoma

Increase uveoscleral outflow

little side effect!

18

How do you separate 1st, 2nd, or 3rd order Horner's Syndrome?

Paredine (hydroxyamphetamine) --> NE release

No pupil response --> 3rd order lesion (benign)

19

Which is left and right?
OD, OS

Left: OS
Right: OD

20

What is the most common type of primary headache?

Tension-type

21

Definition of a migraine aura:

Focal neurological deficit for >4min but

22

What drug combo can cause Serotonin Syndrome?

MAOI + SSRI

23

Mechanism of action for local anesthetics:

Na+ channel block

24

Haloperidol is a ___ antipsychotic that is most likely to cause ___ and ___ side effects

Typical

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS)
Tardive Dyskinesia (TD)

25

What drug interactions can cause a Hypertensive Crisis?

MAOI + Releasers(Tyramine)/TCAs/a1 agonists/Levodopa

26

What are the 3 structural parts of a local anesthetic:

1. Aromatic ring
2. Intermediate linkage
3. Terminal amine

27

What are the hallmark side effects of Na+ Channel Blockers?

Dizzy, Drunk, Double vision

28

Why can't you give a pregnant woman with epilepsy Valproic Acid?

-Teratogenic 4-8%

29

Match the neurotransmitters with related genes in terms of ADHD:
-Dopamine, Norepinephrine, Serotonin
-DRD4/DRD5/COMT/5HTPPLR/DAT

-DA---DRD4, DRD5, COMT
-NE---COMT
-Serotonin---5HTPPLR

30

Autoinduction and heteroinduction is associated with what Anti-epileptic drug?

Carbamazepine
-Na+ channel blocker

31

How can serotonin abnormality cause Anxiety and Depression?

Low serotonin circuit activity --> hyperfunctioning limbic pathway

32

Patient is sad, weepy, suicida, worried, and ruminating. What gene is most likely mutated?
A. DAT
B. Tyrosine hydroxylase
C. 5HTPLLR

C. 5HTPLLR
Serotonin associated with high negative affect

33

What are the Cluster A personality disorders?

Psychotic-like:
-Paranoid
-Schizoid
-Schizotypal

34

What are the Cluster B personality disorders?

Dreaded, behavioral :
-Antisocial
-Histrionic
-Narcissistic
-Borderline

35

What are the Cluster C personality disorders?

Anxious:
-Avoidant
-Dependent
-Obsessive-compusltive

36

Difference between homeopathy and naturopathy

Homeopathy: stimulate body's self-healing response

Naturopathy: noninvasive treatments

37

What are 3 CAM treatment that have effectiveness treating depression?

L-methylfolate
S-adenosyl methionine (SAMe)
St. John's Wort

38

What is the rate of placebo effect in EVERYTHING done in psychiatry?

40%

39

What CAM treatment has very good evidence in treating seasonal depression?`

Light therapy

40

What's the difference between Schizoid and Schizotypal PD?

Schizoid: trouble relating, have no interest in interactions

Schizotypal: oddities in behavior and thoughts

41

What is an age related requirement for Antisocial PD?

Evidence of a Conduct Disorder with onset before age 15

That leads to pervasive pattern of disregard for or violation of rights of others after age 15

42

What characterizes Borderline PD?

Pervasive Instability: of relationships, self-image, behaviors, and affects

5+/9 Symptoms needed

43

Which PD are more prevalent in women?
In men?

Women: paranoid, avoidant, dependent

Men: antisocial

44

Psychopharmacolgy can treat what PDs?

Cluster B: Antisocial, narcissistic, histrionic, borderline

Avoidant (Cluster C)

45

Psychotherapy works for which one Cluster B PD?

Borderline PD only
-3 psychodynamic and 2 cognitive behavioral models

46

What is Psychomotor retardation?

Depression causes patient to feel and act slowed down

47

Criteria for Mania vs Hypomania

Mania: 3+/7 symptoms for 7+ days of expansive mood

Hypomania: 3+/7 symptoms for 4+ days

48

What is the difference between Bipolar 1 and Bipolar 2?

Bipolar 1: Mania + MDE

Bipolar 2: Hypomania + MDE

49

What is a requirement/not a requirement for Bipolar 1 and 2?

Must have: Mania or hypomania

Does not need: Depression

50

What is the criteria for Cyclothymia?

Minor depression + 2+ years of hypomania

51

What is Kindling Hypothesis?

Related to Bipolar
-Too much neuronal limbic firing
-Once you get mania, you get more

52

Gender differences in Bipolar

Bipolar 1: men = women
Bipolar 2: women > men

53

How do Atypical Antipsychotics treat Bipolar?

-D2 receptor block--treats Mania
-5HT2a receptor block--terats depression

54

Drugs for treating Bipolar 1:

Lithium, Divalproex, Carbamazepine, Lamotrigine, atypical antipsychotics

55

Developmental milestones:

Finality of death by ___
Gender identify by ___
Social smile at ___
Morality by ___
Body image by ___
Stranger anxiety at ___
Universality of death by ___
Separation anxiety by ___

Finality of death: 6 year
Gender identify: 3 year
Social smile: 12 week
Morality: 12 years
Body image: 15 years
Stranger anxiety: 9 months
Universality of death: 9 years
Separation anxiety: by 1 year

56

Autism Spectrum disorder is seen before age ___

3 years

57

2 Most common genetic factors causing Mental retardation:

Down Syndrome and Fragile X Syndrome

58

Age of onset for:
Tourette's Disorder:
Separation Anxiety:
Selctive Mutism:

Tourette's Disorder: before 18
Separation Anxiety: 7 years
Selctive Mutism: 6 years

59

5 Stages of dying are:

Denial
Anger
Bargaining
Depression
Acceptance

60

What is the hallmark symptom of Schizophrenia and what can it present as?

Psychosis: impairment in reality testing
1. Hallucinations
2. Delusions
3. Disorganized or catotonic behavior
4. Negative symptoms
5. Disorganized speech

61

Symptom and Duration Criteria for Schizophrenia:

2+ symptoms during 1+ month periods that persists for 6 months

62

What class of drugs and mechanism that causes NMS and TD?

Antipsychotics

Excessive D2 receptor blockade

63

Neurotransmitter abnormalities in Schizophrenia:

All high: DA, Glutamate, Serotonin, NE

64

DSM 5 Criteria for ADHD:

-6+ symptoms for 6+ months
-Start before age 12
-Multiple settings

65

ADHD neurologic change/fMRI finding:

hypOactive Anterior Cingulate

66

SIG E CAPS

Sleep disturbance
Interest/pleasure reduction
Guilt, worthlessness
Energy loss, fatigue
Concentration/attention impairment
Appetite changes
Psychomotor symptoms
Suicide Ideation

67

What 3 Genes are associated with early onset AD

-APP
-Presenilin 1
-Presenilin 2

All autosomal dominant

68

3 Types of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD):

-Tau
-TDP
-FUS

69

Knife-edge gross examination of brain suggests:

Tau form of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD)

70

Tau associated diseases:

-Alzheimer's
-FTLD
-Parkinson's
-PSP
-CBD

71

Histological findings in PSP:

-Globose tangle
-Tufted astrocyte

72

What are Lewy Bodies made of?

Alpha-synuclein