Flashcards in Q-based Deck (72):
Where is DA made?
-Ventral Tegmental Area
What things are caused by VTA destruction:
Low DA -->
What things are caused by DA excess:
How and on what does Reserpine work?
-Inhibits VMAT transport
What things caused by low NE:
What things caused by high NE:
What's the only drug approved to treat Huntington's Chorea?
What is Baclofen used for?
Treat spasticity associated w/ ALS
What is the only drug that can improve QOL and lifespan of ALS patients?
What class of drug is Buproprion?
In a COPD patient w/ Glaucoma, what are 1st line drugs?
COPD = no Beta Blockers
Latanoprast, Travoprost, Bimatoprost, Unoprostone isopryl
Blocking what receptor stops Psychosis?
Mechanism of antipsychotics
What class of drug is Tropicamide?
What eye muscle is affected in Horner's Sydrome?
Superior palpebral muscle of Muller
What class of drug is Pilocarpine?
What is the use and mechanism of Beta Blockers in Opthalmology?
decrease aqueous humor production at ciliary epithelium
Prostaglandin analog mechanism for treating Glaucoma
Increase uveoscleral outflow
little side effect!
How do you separate 1st, 2nd, or 3rd order Horner's Syndrome?
Paredine (hydroxyamphetamine) --> NE release
No pupil response --> 3rd order lesion (benign)
Which is left and right?
What is the most common type of primary headache?
Definition of a migraine aura:
Focal neurological deficit for >4min but
What drug combo can cause Serotonin Syndrome?
MAOI + SSRI
Mechanism of action for local anesthetics:
Na+ channel block
Haloperidol is a ___ antipsychotic that is most likely to cause ___ and ___ side effects
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS)
Tardive Dyskinesia (TD)
What drug interactions can cause a Hypertensive Crisis?
MAOI + Releasers(Tyramine)/TCAs/a1 agonists/Levodopa
What are the 3 structural parts of a local anesthetic:
1. Aromatic ring
2. Intermediate linkage
3. Terminal amine
What are the hallmark side effects of Na+ Channel Blockers?
Dizzy, Drunk, Double vision
Why can't you give a pregnant woman with epilepsy Valproic Acid?
Match the neurotransmitters with related genes in terms of ADHD:
-Dopamine, Norepinephrine, Serotonin
-DA---DRD4, DRD5, COMT
Autoinduction and heteroinduction is associated with what Anti-epileptic drug?
-Na+ channel blocker
How can serotonin abnormality cause Anxiety and Depression?
Low serotonin circuit activity --> hyperfunctioning limbic pathway
Patient is sad, weepy, suicida, worried, and ruminating. What gene is most likely mutated?
B. Tyrosine hydroxylase
Serotonin associated with high negative affect
What are the Cluster A personality disorders?
What are the Cluster B personality disorders?
Dreaded, behavioral :
What are the Cluster C personality disorders?
Difference between homeopathy and naturopathy
Homeopathy: stimulate body's self-healing response
Naturopathy: noninvasive treatments
What are 3 CAM treatment that have effectiveness treating depression?
S-adenosyl methionine (SAMe)
St. John's Wort
What is the rate of placebo effect in EVERYTHING done in psychiatry?
What CAM treatment has very good evidence in treating seasonal depression?`
What's the difference between Schizoid and Schizotypal PD?
Schizoid: trouble relating, have no interest in interactions
Schizotypal: oddities in behavior and thoughts
What is an age related requirement for Antisocial PD?
Evidence of a Conduct Disorder with onset before age 15
That leads to pervasive pattern of disregard for or violation of rights of others after age 15
What characterizes Borderline PD?
Pervasive Instability: of relationships, self-image, behaviors, and affects
5+/9 Symptoms needed
Which PD are more prevalent in women?
Women: paranoid, avoidant, dependent
Psychopharmacolgy can treat what PDs?
Cluster B: Antisocial, narcissistic, histrionic, borderline
Avoidant (Cluster C)
Psychotherapy works for which one Cluster B PD?
Borderline PD only
-3 psychodynamic and 2 cognitive behavioral models
What is Psychomotor retardation?
Depression causes patient to feel and act slowed down
Criteria for Mania vs Hypomania
Mania: 3+/7 symptoms for 7+ days of expansive mood
Hypomania: 3+/7 symptoms for 4+ days
What is the difference between Bipolar 1 and Bipolar 2?
Bipolar 1: Mania + MDE
Bipolar 2: Hypomania + MDE
What is a requirement/not a requirement for Bipolar 1 and 2?
Must have: Mania or hypomania
Does not need: Depression
What is the criteria for Cyclothymia?
Minor depression + 2+ years of hypomania
What is Kindling Hypothesis?
Related to Bipolar
-Too much neuronal limbic firing
-Once you get mania, you get more
Gender differences in Bipolar
Bipolar 1: men = women
Bipolar 2: women > men
How do Atypical Antipsychotics treat Bipolar?
-D2 receptor block--treats Mania
-5HT2a receptor block--terats depression
Drugs for treating Bipolar 1:
Lithium, Divalproex, Carbamazepine, Lamotrigine, atypical antipsychotics
Finality of death by ___
Gender identify by ___
Social smile at ___
Morality by ___
Body image by ___
Stranger anxiety at ___
Universality of death by ___
Separation anxiety by ___
Finality of death: 6 year
Gender identify: 3 year
Social smile: 12 week
Morality: 12 years
Body image: 15 years
Stranger anxiety: 9 months
Universality of death: 9 years
Separation anxiety: by 1 year
Autism Spectrum disorder is seen before age ___
2 Most common genetic factors causing Mental retardation:
Down Syndrome and Fragile X Syndrome
Age of onset for:
Tourette's Disorder: before 18
Separation Anxiety: 7 years
Selctive Mutism: 6 years
5 Stages of dying are:
What is the hallmark symptom of Schizophrenia and what can it present as?
Psychosis: impairment in reality testing
3. Disorganized or catotonic behavior
4. Negative symptoms
5. Disorganized speech
Symptom and Duration Criteria for Schizophrenia:
2+ symptoms during 1+ month periods that persists for 6 months
What class of drugs and mechanism that causes NMS and TD?
Excessive D2 receptor blockade
Neurotransmitter abnormalities in Schizophrenia:
All high: DA, Glutamate, Serotonin, NE
DSM 5 Criteria for ADHD:
-6+ symptoms for 6+ months
-Start before age 12
ADHD neurologic change/fMRI finding:
hypOactive Anterior Cingulate
SIG E CAPS
Energy loss, fatigue
What 3 Genes are associated with early onset AD
All autosomal dominant
3 Types of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD):
Knife-edge gross examination of brain suggests:
Tau form of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD)
Tau associated diseases:
Histological findings in PSP: