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Flashcards in Quality Management Deck (44)
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1

The higher the SD result means

lower precision

2

1. SD result of >2 indicates
2. SD result should be <2

a. lower precision
b. higher precision

A B

3

Percentile expression of the mean. Aka Total Percent Error. Index of precision.

Coefficient Variation

4

Formula of CV

CV= SDx100/Mean

5

Limits between which we expect a specified
proportion of population to lie

Confidence limits

6

standard reference limit for normal distribution

95%

7

Normal Frequency Curve, Normal Distribution
Curve

Gaussian Curve

8

Also known as Bell-shaped curve

Gaussian Curve

9

this is where you plot the result, where SD are placed

Y-axis

10

this is where you plot the frequency, where DAYS are placed

X-axis

11

CUSUM data elements are centered around the mean
with most elements close to the mean. TRUE OR FALSE.

False

12

If a random error is present the curve in gaussian curve becomes

wider & shorter

13

Used to compare results using different
samples or one sample using two different
methods and for systematic error detection

Twin plot

14

In bell-shaped curve, one specimen will be plotted to the Y axis and the other specimen will be plotted to the X axis. TRUE OR FALSE.

False

15

Calculates the difference between QC results
and the target means

Cumulative sum graph

16

Most widely used system in clinical laboratories. A graphic representation of the acceptable limits
of variation in the results of an analytical method. Detects both random and systematic error.

Shewart Levey-Jennings chart

17

Levey-Jennings Chart: Before plotting this chart, you have first to compute for the 8 statistical parameters
specifically, the SD and the Mean. TRUE OR FALSE.

True

18

Done by subtracting the mean from the
individual values and the cumulative differences
are plotted. Give the earliest indication of systematic error.

Cumulative sum graph

19

The mean should be written in one solid line
whereas the confidence limit should be written
using broken lines when making

Shewart Levey-Jennings chart

20

Control values that lies in _SD and _SD and beyond is a sign of potential problem. You have to run a new
control and repeat specimen testing.

2 & 3

21

is considered in control when
there is symmetrical distribution of control values
about the mean and there are only few control
values outside the 2SD control limit

Analytical method

22

Errors which can be observed on LJ chart: Gradual change in the mean that proceed in one direction. Control values either increases or decreases for six consecutive days.

Trend

23

Causes of trend are improper calibration of
instrument, new lots of standards and reagents. TRUE OR FALSE.

False

24

Causes of shift are deterioration of reagents, light
source, control materials. TRUE OR FALSE.

False

25

An abrupt change in the mean that becomes continuous. Control values that distribute themselves on one side or either side of the mean but do not pass the mean for six consecutive days.

Shift

26

Also known as “Multirule Quality Control” used in the laboratory for internal and external QC.

Westgard Control Rule

27

Control rule to indicate if the analytical process
is “in control” or “out of control”

Westgard Control Rule

28

One control result exceeds the mean by more than +/- 2SD & 3SD should be rejected (random error). TRUE OR FALSE. What error is that?

True, 12s &13s

29

Two consecutive control results/days exceed the mean by 2 more than 2SD is a systematic error. TRUE OR FALSE. What error is that?

True, 22s

30

Four consecutive control results/days exceeds the mean by more than 1 SD should not be rejected (systematic error). TRUE OR FALSE. What error is that?

False, 41s