Quarterly Exam #3 Study Definitions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quarterly Exam #3 Study Definitions Deck (33)
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0
Q

Gothic Cathedrals

A

Relating to a style of architecture that developed in medieval Europe, featuring ribbed vaults, stained glass windows, flying buttresses, pointed arches, and tall spires. They were more light and open than Romanesque cathedrals, which were dark, gloomy, boxy, and let in little light.

1
Q

Mansa Musa

A

A king from Mali who went on a pilgrimage to Mecca and on his way gave lots of gold to people (this made Europeans learn of their excessive wealth). He greatly supported religious education, and helped build and fund many schools. He also made Timbuktu an important place of trade, learning, diversity, and culture.

2
Q

Simony

A

The selling or buying of a position in a Christian church.

3
Q

University

A

Groups of scholars meeting where they could to discuss studies and from that get jobs.

4
Q

Pope Urban II

A

The pope who called for the “ holy war” against the Muslims and the crusades after reading about what was happening there, told people who died on crusade they would go to heaven.

5
Q

Bubonic Plague

A

A deadly disease that spread across Asia and Europe in the mid-14th century, killing millions of people.
Resulted in:
-crumbling of medieval society (peasant revolts)
-decrease in faith and power of the church

6
Q

Norman Conquest

A

William the Conquerer was the Duke of Normandy (descendants of the Vikings) and Cousin of Edward the Confessor. He fought in the Battle of Hastings (1066) with Harold Godwinson, an Anglo-Saxon who claimed the throne. Harold died, being pierced in the eye. William won and declared England as all of his personal property, giving lands to Norman lords and laying the foundation for a centralized government in Europe.

7
Q

Church Reform #1

A

Priests married with kids→ Pope Leo IX enforced church laws

—–against the church

8
Q

Lay Investiture

A

The appointment of religious officials by kings or nobles.

9
Q

Charlemagne

A

The ruler of the Frankish kingdom after Carloman. He was the greatest supporter of Christianity, conquered many and converted them to Christianity, and spurred the Carolingian Renaissance which spread Christianity through literacy and being able to read the Bible.

10
Q

The Middle Ages

A

The era in European history that followed the fall of the Roman Empire, lasting from about 500-1500–also called the medieval period.

11
Q

Caliph

A

A supreme political and religious leader in a Muslim government. Means “successor” or “deputy”.

12
Q

Feudalism

A

A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land.

13
Q

Battle of Tours

A

Fought between Frankish leader Charles Martel and and Islamic army. It slowed the Islamic conquests and preserved Christianity as the main religion in Europe. If the Muslims had won , Western Europe might have become a part of the Muslim empire.

14
Q

Shiite (Shi’a)

A

A sect of Islam that believes the leaders should be descendants of Muhammad.

15
Q

Timbuktu

A

Timbuktu became one of the most important cities of the empire. It attracted Muslim judges, doctors, religious leaders, and scholars from far and wide. They attended Timbuktu’s outstanding mosques and universities

16
Q

Papacy

A

The Pope’s Office.

17
Q

Ibn Battuta

A

An Influential Muslim explorer and traveller who was natively a Tangier and travelled from Spain to China (and was a judge in India).
In writing the Rihla, he introduced new ways of life, governments, systems of justice, and cultures to people who didn’t know. He increased the desire to travel in many. He also complimented and used constructive criticism to help cities grow and improve.

18
Q

Excommunication

A

The taking away of a person’s right of membership in a Christian church. Henry VI was excommunicated.

19
Q

Tithe

A

A religious tax paid that people had to pay to the church. The tax = one-tenth of your income.

20
Q

Secular

A

Concerned with worldly power involved in politics rather than spiritual matters. Gregory l changed the papacy to this. He made the church become the center of the Roman government (used church revenues to raise armies, repair roads, and help the poor).

21
Q

Rightly Guided Caliph

A

Caliphs who used the Qur’an and Muhammad’s actions as guides to leadership–Umar, Uthman, and Ali.

22
Q

Crusades

A

One of the expeditions in which medieval Christian warriors fought to recover control of the Holy Land from the Muslims.
Effects were:
BAD:
—hostility between Muslims and Christians
—weakened feudal nobility and increased the power of kings
—Jews were persecuted
GOOD:
—European merchants expanded trade with the west (Europe and Southwest Asia)»>benefitted both Christians and Muslims

23
Q

House of Wisdom

A

A center of learning that was established in Baghdad in the 800s. Here scholars of various cultures translated texts from Greece, India, Persia into the vernacular Arabic. Developed standards and techniques for research that are a part of basic methods today
creation was spurred by Muhammad’s emphasis on study and scholarship.

24
Q

Magna Carta

A
Document guaranteeing basic political rights in England, drawn up by nobles and approved by King John. The nobles wanted to safeguard their own feudal rightsand limit the king’s powers. Basis for constitution.
Included:
---No taxation w/o representation
---jury trial
---protection of the law
25
Q

Sunni

A

A sect of Islam. Sunnis believe that the Muslim community should select their own leaders, instead of having the leaders be a descendant of Muhammad. It is the majority religion in most Islamic countries.

26
Q

Umayyads

A

A dynasty that ruled the Muslim empire from AD 661-750 and later established a kingdom in al-Andalus
The Umayyads moved the Muslim capital to Damascus. This location, away from Mecca, made controlling conquered territories easier. However, the Arab Muslims felt it was too far away from their lands. In addition, the Umayyads abandoned the simple life of previous caliphs and began to surround themselves with wealth and ceremony similar to that of non-Muslim rulers. These actions, along with the leadership issue, gave rise to a fundamental division in the Muslim community.

27
Q

Abbasid

A

A dynasty that ruled the Muslim empire after the Umayyads.
To solidify power, the Abbasids moved the capital of the empire in 762 to a newly created city, Baghdad, in central Iraq. The location on key trade routes gave the caliph access to trade goods, gold, and information about the far-flung empire. The Abbasids developed a strong bureaucracy to conduct the huge empire’s affairs. To support this bureaucracy, the Abbasids taxed land, imports and exports, and non-Muslims’ wealth. The Abbasids increased their authority by consulting religious leaders. But they failed to keep complete political control of the immense territory.

28
Q

Inquisition

A

This was used by the Spanish monarchs Isabella and Ferdinand to unify their empire under Christianity. It was a court held to suppress heresy, or religious beliefs which differed from those of the church.

29
Q

Hundred Years’ War

A

A conflict in which England and France battled on French soil on and off from 1337-1453. Effects were nationalism in both countries, power of the French monarch, and inner turmoil in England.

30
Q

Church Reform #2

A

Simony → Pope Leo IX enforced church laws against simony

—–corrupt, too much power, and unethical and immoral

31
Q

Church Reform #3

A

Monasteries and churches have a lot of money→ stricter rules, monastic reform, and vow of poverty
—–the church is not supposed to be about wealth (non profit), and everything should be equal

32
Q

Church Reform #4

A

Lay Investiture→ Concordat of Worms (said that church people appoint church people, political people appoint political people) and Popes appoint bishops but Kings can veto
—-kings control powerful bishops and it takes power away from the Pope.