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0

Early civilizations believed that the cave was a sanctuary, and that specific sites had a specific sacred connotation, feel, or 'spirit of place'. What was the term for this concept?

Genus loci

1

What formed the Carnac Manhirs in France?

Retreating glacier erosion.

2

The Nazca Lines are designs inscribed on the ground, what are these lines called?

Geocliffs

3

Term for structures that imitate natural land forms, such as the Ziggurat of Ur?

Mimetic architecture.

4

Who designed the funerary complex of Queen Hatshepsut?

Senmut

5

Where are the casa grande ruins located?

Arizona

6

4 values of classical design

1. Simplicity of form
2. Harmonious proportion
3. Ornament draw attention to important parts of structures.
4. Symmetry

7

What did Hippodamus invent?

City planning

8

What did the Romans build to transept water to supply water for public baths, pools, fountains, etc?

Aqueducts

9

Which country did the Romans build Hadrian's wall?

Scotland border

10

In which country is Alhambra located?

Spain

11

How many lion sculptures are in the fountain at court of lions?

12

12

What is a cordonata?

A gradual sloping road or pathway with cross stripes of brick or stone.

13

What is a bosco (Italian) or bosquet (French)?

A wooded area

14

What is a belvedere?

A high place in a garden for people to admire the beautiful view.

15

Methods Michelangelo used to design a cohesive space and create order from chaos on Capitoline Hill?

1. Facades to unify - pilasters.
2. Oval pavement design to break space.
3. Statue in center - focal point.
4. Entryway - arched gate from appian way.

16

2 elements found in formal gardens that were also used in city squares.

1. Center fountains.
2. Obelisks

17

Who was appointed by Napoleon III in 1853 to "modernize" Paris?

Hosmen

18

What is the French word that means town/city square?

Place

19

When city governments began to improve their urban spaces, which garden feature was adapted for use to increase the usability and drama of the cityscape?

Allée

20

The Nevsky is located in what city?

St. Petersburg

21

What is a parterre de broderie

Garden bed with an embroidery like design of curlicues and swirls.

22

The term for a fruit tree that is trained and and trimmed to spread out in a flat plane against a wall?

Pollarding

23

What gardens did André Le Nôtre design?

1. Versailles
2. Les Jardin De Tuileries
3. Chantilly
4. Vaux-le-Vicomte

24

Design principles of André Le Nôtre

1. Garden visible as a while composition.
2. House and gardens blended to be part of the while composition.
3. Long avenues and expanses of water created a unified design.
4. Fountains created rhythm, movement, and focal points.
5. Used 3D geometry - flat planes of tapia vert, vertical planes of hedges, and overhead planes of trees.
6. NOT picturesque.

25

In what country did capability brown design park-like landscapes?

England

26

What's a folly?

Classical style buildings in English gardens meant only to be focal points. Not for use.

27

What estates did capability brown design?

1. Blenheim palace
2. Stourhead
3. Nuneham
4. Chatsworth

28

2 characteristics of capability brown's design landscapes

1. S-curves
2. Free form lakes
3. Grass all way up to the building.
4. More natural than nature itself.
5. Smooth topographic transitions.
6. Gardenless form.
7. Lots of grading.

29

Design characteristics of English garden

- grand scale.
- gently rolling hills.
- free-form lakes.
- groves of trees.
- a unified site plan.
- use of s-curve.