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Palimpsest

The trace of remains of previous cultures' designs.

1

Cultural Landscape

Cultural properties representing the combined works of nature and of man.

2

Vernacular Landscape

A cultural landscape that evolved over time.

3

Humanism

Study of humantics, rhetoric, and philosophy.

4

Caryatid

Columns carved in a woman's figure.

5

Polis

Greek city-state

6

Peristyle

Long rectangular porch surrounded by columns.

7

Agora

Roman meeting/market place. Also for public performances. Always very open.

8

Aqueduct

Supplied water to the city. 490-500 mi long.

9

Cardo

Main street running north to south.

10

Decumanus

Main street running east to west.

11

Píazza

Italian public place

12

Forum

Greek agora, usually surrounded by government buildings and usually at the intersection of the main streets. Enclosed. Not open like the Romans.

13

Portico

Porch or covered walkway supported by columns.

14

Petroglyph

(Also called rock engravings.) Images created by removing part of a rock surface by incising, picking, carving, and abrading

15

Genius Loci

Spirit of place.

16

Pictoglyph

Symbols painted on rock wall.

17

Menhir

Geological stone that.

18

Stela

Upright carved stone.

19

Ziggurat

A terraced pyramid.

20

Pyramid

A structure with a rectangular base and 4 triangular sides, tomb for pharaoh or king.

21

Grotto

A natural or artificial cave that human’s imbue with spiritual or cultural meaning.

22

Mimetic Architecture

Structures that imitate natural land forms.

23

Geoglyph

Images inscribed on the earth.

24

Chahar Bagh

4 fold garden design. 4 pieces bisected by water with a pool or fountain in the middle.

25

Chadar

Patterns carved on the surface of the water chute. They created different effects in the cascade of the water.

26

Chini Kana

Candles or flowers placed in the niches behind the water to enhance the effect of the falling water.

27

Cloister

Covered walkway found in a monastery, like peristyles.

28

Physic Garden

Garden containing medicinal herbs.

29

Hortus Conclusus

Enclosed garden found in medieval designs.