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1

What is the affect of parsymapthetic stimulation of the heart via the vagus

Hyperpolarisation of the cardiac muscle and overall decrease in heart rate

2

On which cells does VP act on

Principal cells of the distal tubule

3

What are the determinatns of diastolic pressure

Total resistance Blood flow from arterial to venous side

4

What are the types of causes of acute renal failure

Pre renal - outside kidney Renal - problems with kindey Post renal - downstream problems

5

Loop diruretics act of the thick ascending limb t or f

T loop diuretics block NKCC2 Prevent Na K and Cl reabsorption and thus water reabsorption

6

Within which bone is the pituitary gland located

Sphenoid

7

What is an obstrucitve disease

Leads to reduction in flow through the airways

8

During forced isnpiration which additional muscels are involved

Scalenes, sternocleidomastoids, neck, back and upper respiratory muscles

9

Define the renal threshold for glucose

Plasma concentration at which the glucose will start to appear in the urine of a healthy individual

10

How do kinase kinase linked receptors work

Leads to the activation of tyrosine kinase which results in protein phosphorylation

11

Deifne the ANS

Efferent division of the visceral nervous system

12

Does quiet inspiration involve and active contraction of muscles

F it is an active process

13

Do carriers of barters and gitlemans have a lower BP

YEs

14

How are sweat glands an exception to this rule

Use ACh and muscsrinic receptors at post ganglionic receptors

15

Why does K recycle over the apical membrane in the thick ascending limb

Not enough K present in the filtrate to maintain NKCC2

16

Do all blood vessels have nervous sytem input

Yes but only larger vessels have discrete nerves

17

The anterior = The posterior =

Adeno Neuro

18

What are the main types of mammalian hormones

Peptide hormones Catecholamines Steroid hormones

19

Does quiet exp involve the active contraction of muscles

No it is passive

20

What is the effect of the muations in the proteins which cause Bartters

Insuff. Na and Cl- reab and thus less water reab

21

What are the effects of ACE inhibitors

Reduction of blood pressure

22

What can be used in the long term to treat asthma

GLucocorticoids Longer acting B adrenoreceptor agon

23

In which layer of a blood vessel would you find the vasorum

Adventitia

24

What causes distal renal acidosis

Mutation in AE1 resulting in its presence in both apical and basolateral membrane ultimately leading to HCO3- being excreted in the urine

25

By what methods can we decrease the mean arterial pressure

Vasodilation - symp A1 adrenoreceptor antag e.g. prazosin Decrease cardiac output - sympathetic B1 adrenoreceptor antag e.g. atentolol/propanolol Ca2+ channel blocker ACE inhibitors

26

Where are venules and arterioles only found

In tissues

27

Is breathing an involuntary mechanism that cant be altered

No - it can be consciously altered

28

What are the only types of animals to have loops and Henles and why is this

Mammals and birds They are the only ones to have the ability to adjust their urine concentration

29

Name an example of a pharmacological compound which interacts with an enzyme

Apamin blocks K+ channels leaving neurones hyperpolarised resulting in the firing in many action potentials resulting in the sensation of pain

30

In what region of the hypothalamus are the osmoreceptors found

Supra-optic nucleus Para ventricular nucleus

31

What is meant by the shuttling hypothesis

Increased VP leads to AQP2 insertion Decreased VP results in vesicle reformation and removal of AQP2 from the apical membrane

32

State the equation of air flow in the lungs

V = Delta P / R

33

What causes asthama

Oversensitivity of the smooth muscle in the airways

34

What is the role of the pleural membranes

Prevents lungs from sticking to the chest wall

35

What are the net effects of vasopressin

Increase water reabsorption Decrease in body fluid osmolality

36

How is the B-intercalated cell configuration different

AE1 is present on the apical membrane and pumps protons into intersitial fluid

37

On which area of the nephron and which protein do thiazide diuretics work on

NCC Early distal

38

What is the average stroke volume

70ml

39

What is seen in patients with asthma

Hyperactive airways resulting in bronchoconstriction and decreased radius of the bronchi

40

How does foatal HB differ from adult Hb

Instead of two beta has two gamma No affect of 2,3-DPG Allows high affinity to scavenge oxygen

41

What are the subclasses of ligand gated ion channels

`nAChR - 4 TM domains - cation selective Glutamate receptor - 3 TM domains, P loop P2X receptor - 2 TM domains, ATP gated

42

What are the main types of capillaries

Continuous Fenestrated Discont/sinusoid

43

What type of mutation causes distal renal acidosis

Change of function

44

What is iC

Inspiratory capacity - The maximum volume of air which can be inspired after a normal quiet expiration

45

What are the names of the two vessels that link the lymphatic system with the CVS

Right lymphatic duct Thoracic lymphatic duct

46

List some of the causes of chronic renal failure

Diabetes Hypertension Glomerular nephritis PKD

47

State the equations for MAP

Disastolic - (1/3XPP) OR CO X TPR

48

Recall some diseases associated with high thyroid hormone levels

Graves disease

49

By what mechanisms can hormones regulate the levels of their own receptors

Up regualtion when low hormone levels - increased receptor, exposure of membrane, less breakdown Down regulation when high hormone levels - decreased receptor, concealing membrane, greater rate of breakdown

50

How does the aorta cope with peak ejection pressure

Smooth muscle in media replaced by concentric layers of elastic tissue that allow the vessel to expand during peak pressures

51

Define affinity

The ability of a ligand to bind to a receptor

52

What is the role of central chemoreceptors

Monitor conditions of the CSF and respond indirectly to to CO2 increases

53

Which AQP channels are found of the aprical membrane of the principal cell

AQP2

54

What effect does an Ai subunit have

Inhibits adenylate cyclase

55

Does the ammount of Na in the plasma determine the plasma volume

No the volume determines sodium content

56

How are the ions brought into the cell in the thick ascending limb

1 Na 1 K and 2 Cl Brought into cell through symporter on the apical membrane (NKCC2 symporter)

57

Is angiotenisin a small protein

Small peptide, 8 amino acids

58

What is IRV

Inspirtory reserve volume - volume of air that can be expired after a normal quiet inspiration

59

What are the two forms of diabetes insipidus and how do they differ

Central DI -problem with CNS which results in no release of VP Nephrogenic DI - Normal VP response but no resposne, deffective V2 receptors

60

What are the two main NTs of the ANS

NA and ACh

61

How can the RMM of proteins in the urine indicate problems with the filtration barrier

High RMM proteins - problems with filtration barrier Low RMM proteins - problems with reabsorption

62

Which region of the Loop of Henle is permeable to Na and Cl but not permeable to H2O

Thin ascending limb

63

What is the name of the enzyme which catlayses the coversion of Fe3+ to Fe2+

Methaemoglobin reductase

64

What can be seen in patients

Hyperkalaemia Hypertension Acidosis Pericarditus Aneamia Lethargy Nausea Vomitting

65

Do the combinations of subunits create different receptors

Yes

66

What to the agonists of B2 receptors in the bronchi cause

Bronchodilation

67

Explain the mechanism of vasopressin

Binds to V2 receptors on the basolateral membrane of principle leading to activation of a G-protein coupled pathway that leads to the activation of PKA - PKA phosphorylates vesicles that lie underneath the apical membrane resulting in the fusion of the two membranes and insertions of AQP2 water channels and subsequent reabsorption of wayer

68

What can be said about pressure and air movement during expiration

Pat < Palv So air moves out of the lungs

69

What is significant about the diameter of the capillaries and the size of the red blood cell

Red blood cells are larger

70

What is the role of ENaC in the principal cells

Na influx

71

What is the average resting HR

70bpm

72

What is the roles of the lymphatic system

Deliver excess tissue fluid to the CVS

73

How do antagonists work

Bind to the receptor forming a drug-receptor complex which prevents the agonist form binding whilst also not causing a response

74

Are veins more compliant than arteries

Yes

75

What is diabetes insipidus

Inadequet ADH levels --> polydipsia and polyuria

76

What is the typical systemic diastolic pressure

75 mmHg

77

Equation for compliance

Change in vol / Change in pressure

78

Recall some diseases associated with decreased thyroid hormone levels

Cretinism (children), myxoedema (adults)

79

What happens as a result of humidifcation of air in the lungs

Increase the P(H2O) in the air whilst decreasing the partial pressure of the other gas constituents - overall partial pressure maintained

80

What type of pharmacological compounds are hormones

Agonists

81

What is the effect of the balancing of the inward force privded by the elastic recoild of the lings and the elastic recoil of the chest wall

Intrapleural space with a lower pressure than the atmosphere

82

Name some examples of GPCRs

mAchR, adrenreceptors, opiate receptors, olfactory receptors

83

what is cardiac output

CO=SVXHR

84

What causes the transport maximum

Limited number of carrier/transporter proteins in the membrane

85

How does Gitlemans compare to Barters

Same symptoms however show hypocalcaemia (opposite Bartters)

86

Which lung volume cant be measured by spirometery

Residual volume

87

Name an antagonist of GABAa and its mechanism of action

Picrotxin - prevents opening of all GABAa channels thus preventing any inhibition of brain activity leading to seizures

88

Are venules open all of the time

No the pressure of the cells and surrounding tissues may close the vessel, all flow prevented below a certain pressure

89

Define the transport maximum

Where transport across the tubule has reached its maximum rate

90

What is the effect of alcohol on VP release

Inhibits

91

WHat can be used in the short term to treat asthma

Salbutamol - B2 adrenoreceptor agonist , bronchodilator

92

Two types of resp

Internal External

93

Name some examples of restrictive lung diseases

Asbestosis ALS/MND

94

Two BV associated with the kidney

Renal artery and renal vein

95

What hormone is released from the hypothalalmus that triggers thyroid stimulating hormone to be released from the troph cells

Thyrotrophin releasing hormone

96

What do the agonists of B1 receptors in the heart cause

Tachycardia - increased contractility

97

Give examples of molecules secreted from the posterior pittuitary gland

Oxcytocin vasopressin

98

Name an example of a pharmacological compund that interacts with a transporter

Digoxin --> inhibits Na/K ATPase causing a collapse in the resting potential of the cardiac muscle

99

Define uraemia

Classic set of symptoms associated with chronic renal failure

100

Name the accessory muscles of expiration used during a forced expiration

Internal intercostals Neck Back Abdominals

101

In a healthy adult what can be said about dead space

Antatomical dead space ~ Physiological dead space

102

What is meant by lung compliance

Measure of elasticity - how easy it is to inflate the lungs

103

State the equation for calculation of pulse pressure

Systolic - Diastolic

104

Explain how a fall in BMR or body temp leads to the release of thyroid hormones

Decrease in body temp causes TRH to be released from hypothalamus into the portal. TRH binds to receptors of thyrotroph cells in the adenohypophysis causing the release of thyroid stimulating hormone TSH traveles to the thryoid gland where it stimulates the thyroid follicles to make and release T3 and T4

105

What can be said about air pressure and air movement during inspiration

Pat >> Palv So air into lungs down the pressure gradient

106

What happens to K+ brought into the cells

Recycled across apical membrane via the renal outer medullary potassium channel ROMK

107

What are the constituent cells of the respiratory epithelium

Ciliated epithelium - cilia beat to waft mucus Goblet cells - secrete mucin which dissolves to create a fluid layer

108

What are the eight types of blood vessel

Large artery Medium sized artery Arteriole Capillary Venule Medium sized vein Large vein

109

How is Mg2+ reabsorbed in the early distal tubule

Apical Mg2+ channel brings it in, basolateral channel for it to move into interstitial fluid

110

In the proximal tubule, describe how glucose, AA and phosphate is absorbed

Na/K ATPase creates a low IC [Na] Coupling with Na influx (symport) glucose, AA and phosphate brought into cell at apical membrane then leave through facilitated transport proteins in the basolateral membrane

111

Name the different types of nephron and their role

Superficial - main role in reg urine composition Juxtaglomerular - fine tuning of urine composition (counter current)

112

Name an example of a nuclear receptor

Steroid hormone receptors - regualtion of gene transcription, slowest resposne

113

What ions is the GABA a receptor selective for

Chloride ion

114

Explain the mechanism by which the hypothalamus controls release of hormones from the adenohypophysis

Hypothalamus secretes releasing/inhibiting hormones which travel in the portal down the pituitary stalk to the adenohypophysis These hormones then bind to receptors on troph cells and stimulate the release of these hormones into the blood

115

What is the standard GFR

125 ml/min

116

How is CO2 transported in the blood and how does it influence blood Ph

HCO3- CO2 is weakly acidic but bicarbonate used as a buffer

117

what are the different regions of the pittuitary gland

Adenohypophysis (secretory) Neurohypophysis (nervous) Pars intermedia

118

Which Korkoff sound is diastolic pressure in the Uk

Fourth

119

What are the most common form of capillary

Cont.

120

What is PCOS

Polycystic ovarian syndrome, when lots of follicles develope instead of one. Can lead to insulin resistance (so insulin levels rise) can lead to weight gain, hair growth and reduced fertility

121

Describe the pathogenesis of asthma

The trigger, leads to movement of inflammatory cells to the bronchi and release of inflammatory mediators --> histamine released causes bronchoconstriction

122

What kind of neurotransmitter and receptor is used at pre ganglionic synapses in the symapthetic NS

ACh nAChR

123

Deffine efficacy

The ability of the drug-receptor complex to cause a response

124

Is the binding of one molecule of O2 sufficent to induce transition to relaxed state for all the sub units

Yes

125

In which ECF compartment is most protein retained

Plasma

126

What are the main types of triggers for asthma

Atopic - allergies Non-atopic - cold, air, infections, stress

127

For the given condition state the effect on the dissociation curve and the effect on the haemoglobin Decreased pCO2

Shift left Carry more

128

How is the renal threshold obtained

Extrapolation of linear region of the glucose excretion curve

129

Name some examples of loop diuretics

Furosemide Bumetanide

130

What is the result of a lowered lung compliance

More difficult inspiration, smaller change in lung volume per unit pressure

131

What AQP channels are found in the basolateral membrane of the principal cell

AQP3 AQP4

132

Which intercalated cells configuration is the most common

a-intercalated

133

What is a pneumothorax

When a puncture in the chest wall leads to Pat = Pip Results in collapse of the lungs to minimal volume

134

WHich region of the LOH is permeable to to Na and Cl but not H20

Thick ascending lim

135

Name an antagonist of a hormone that can be used as a drug

Clomiphene citrate is an antagonist of oestrogen leading to increased levels of FSH and LH

136

For the given condition state the effect on the dissociation curve and the effect on the haemoglobin INCREASED PH

Shift left Carry more O2

137

What two states can haemoglobin exist in

Tense - low O2 affinity Relaxed - high O2 affinity

138

What four mutations can lead to Bartters syndrome

Mutation in barttin Mutation in NKCC2 Mutation in CLCK Mutation in ROMK

139

WHat is the effect of increased Na+ rebasorption on K+ secretion

Less K+ secreted

140

What is the name of the initial insulin precurrsor which is cleaves to to form proinsulin

Preproinsulin

141

What kind of structure is a ligand gated ion channel

Pentameric assembly of subunits around a central pore

142

Name an agonist and antagonist of the nAChRs

Ag - nicotine Ant - Curare

143

What are the two main processes in urine formation

Filtration Modification

144

Which barriers must gas cross for gaseous exchange to occur

Apical and basolateral membrane of pneumocytes Capillary endothelium inner and outer membranes

145

Name an example of a pharmacological compound that interacts with an enzyme

Aspirin - inhibits the COX enzyme preventing the synthesis of prostaglandins thus minimising inflammation and the increased sensitivity to pain

146

What factor is minimised in gaseous exchange is minimised

Diffusion distance

147

What region of the nephron is responsible for Na Cl Mg reab

Early distal tubule

148

What is metformin, how does it work

Treatment for diabetes T2, prevents hyperglycemia whilst not causing hypoglycaemia, increases glucose taken up by the muscles

149

Which type of capillary are often found in surrounding epithelia and contain perforated endothelial cells

Fenestrated capillaries

150

What are the stages of chronic renal failure

Mild renal Midl Moderate Severe End stage

151

At what GFR value is there consdiered to be first stage renal failure

>75 ml / min

152

Where are the preganglionic cell bodies of parasymapthetic neurons located

Spinal cord

153

What is a normal insulin level

2-25 uU / ml

154

For the given condition state the effect on the dissociation curve and the effect on the haemoglobin INCREASED TEMP

Shift right Carry less O2

155

What are two BV associeted with the glomerullus

Afferent and efferent arteriole

156

Define basal metabolic rate

Total body expenditure per unit time when at mental and physical rest but not sleeping

157

What are the main functions of the resp tract

Humidification Filtration Warming

158

What enzyme catalyses the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II

ACE

159

What would the effect of excreeting too little Na be

High Bp

160

What are the two connections between the hpothalamus and pituitary

tract - nervous portal - blood

161

Determine if the follwing are in the cortex or the medulla Bowmanns capsule Glomerulus PT Loop of henle DT Collecting duct

Bowmanns capsule C Glomerulus C PT C Loop of henle M DT C Collecting duct M

162

WHat is TLC

Total lung capacity

163

What are the effects of inslulin secretion in response to high blood glucose levels

Increased uptake of glucose into the cells Increased use of glucose Increases conversion of glucose to glycogen Increased protein synthesis and AA absorb Increases triglyceride synthesis

164

Name one exception to antagonistic control by the ANS

Male sexual fucntion Symp --> ejaculation Para --> errection

165

For the given condition state the effect on the dissociation curve and the effect on the haemoglobin DECREASED PH

Shift right Carry less O2

166

Name an example of a thiazide diuretic

Cholorothiazide

167

Which type of renal failure is irreversible and causes peripeheral neuropathy

Chronic

168

In tissues undergoing active respiration, what is the effect on the factors that influence Hb affinity

Inc pCO2 and thus decreased pH as well as increased 2,3-DPG production and body temperature. These all result in a decreased affinity of Hb for O2 shifting the curve right and leading to a release of O2 inti the tissues, this helps to keep up with O2 demand by activetly respiring tissues

169

What would be seen in a spirometry of a patient with obstructive diseases

Decrease in FEV1 below 80%

170

For the given condition state the effect on the dissociation curve and the effect on the haemoglobin Decreased 2,3-DPG

Shift left Carry more O2

171

What happens to Na brought into the cell

Taken out by Na/K ATPase on basolateral membrane

172

What do the agonists of a2 receptors in the heart cause

Increased contractility

173

Explain signal transduction via GPCRS

At rest GDP bound alpha has a high affinity for the beta-gamma complex Ligand bidning causes GTP to dissplace the GDP and the dissociation of alpha from the beta-gamma complex Both subunits then bind effectors triggering an intracellular signalling cascade When alpha hydrolyses the GTP signalling is stopped

174

What is the name of the proteins responsible for Na and CL uptake from the lumen of the distal tubule

Sodium chloride transported NCC

175

What 5 of the pancrease is endocrine

1%

176

What is the role of apical ROMK channels in the principal cells

K+ secretion into the urine

177

Two processes of ventillation

Inspir Expir

178

How does the a-intercalated cell lead to its effects

H+ ATPase in apical membrane pumps H+ into the lumen of the tubule At basolateral AE1 exchanges Cl- for HCO3- which is removed from the cell and later reabsorbed THe basolateral Cl- channel allows Cl0 to recycle ensuring sufficient ions for AE1 to facilitate HCO3-

179

What are the main types of receptors

Ligand gated ion channels GPCRs Kinase-linked receptors Nuclear receptors

180

Define oedema

Blockages of a lymphatic duct that leads to impaired flow and the accumulation of fluid

181

What are the two principal zones of the respiratory tract

Conducting zone - nose to bronchial tree Respiratory zone - alveolar ducts and air spaces

182

What is the role of peripheral chemoreceptors

Peripheral chemoreceptors located in the carotid artery and aortic arch respond to inc CO2

183

What is the result in an increase lung complicance

Harder to expire, loss of elastic recoil, larger change in lung volume per unit pressure

184

Which type of renal failure is reversible, unchanged Hb levels,

Acute

185

What occurs during filtration

Water, ions, amino acid, glucose and other small molecules leave the glomerulus and enter bowmans capsule

186

Is there proportionally more smooth muscle in the bronchioles than the bronchi

Yes as no cartilage in the bronchi - so smooth muscle instead

187

What is the role of a-intercalated cells

H+ secretion HCO3- absorption

188

How is blood pressure regulated in the long term

Varying of blood volume by renin-angiotensin system

189

Where is the highest fraction of blood situated at any one time

In the veins

190

How doe humoral factors lead to changes in airway diameter

Adrenaline relased into the blood leads to dilation of the airways, histamine released during inflammatory responses leads to constriction of the airways

191

What is important for regulating diameter of arterioles

vascular smooth muscle

192

When would you find an intercalated cell in its beta configuration

During alkalosis

193

Give examples of hormones that can upregualte receptors for other hormones

Oestrogen -> upregulate progesterone receptors Thyroid hormones -> upregulate adrenaline receptors

194

List some of the treatments for chronic kidney failure

Phosphate binders Diuretics dialysis Transplantation

195

What the main symptoms of glucose

Glucose excretion Polyuria Polydipsia

196

What is the typical pulmonary diastolic pressure

8mmHg

197

What are the two types of epithelial cells and what are their roles

Pneumocytes - flat cells, minimise diffusion distance Pneumocytes type II - produce surfactant which reduces surface tension

198

WHat is FRC

Functional reserve capacity - volume of air in respiratory system after a quiet expiration

199

Describe the structure of haemoglobin

Tetrameric structure conssisting of two alpha and two beta chain each containing a porphyrin ring consisting of a Fe2+ complex

200

What is the average daily intake of H2O

2.6L

201

what effect does an Aq sub unit have

Regulation of plc

202

How does the parasympathetic nervous system control airway diameter

Vagus releases ACh acts on mAchRs and causes constrtiction of the airway smooth muscle

203

What is the the cause of Gitelmans syndrome

Mutation in NCC - autosomal recessive

204

What is meant by tubular reabsorption

Substances picked out of the nephron and returned to the peritubular capillaries

205

Name some examples of obstructive lung diseases

Asthma COPD/Emphysema Chronic bronchitus Inflammation Oedema

206

What are the effects of NO and how can this be used pharmacologically

Causes vasodilation Sidafinal (viagra) potentiates NO action and can be used to treat erectil dysfunction

207

What is the approximate size and weight of the kidney

5.5x10 cm 150g

208

What is the role of the loop of henle

H20 Na K Cl Mg Ca reabsorption

209

How many TM domains are there in kinase linked receptors

1

210

What class of drug is amiloride and how does it work

K+ sparing diuretic that blocks the ENaC channel leading to Na and H2O loss in the urine, used to trat hypertension

211

Which centres are involved in basic respiratory rhythm and which aspect of resp are they involved in

Dorsal respiratory group - Controls the basic resp pattern, spont activity via signals to the inspiratory muscles Ventral respiratory group - controls forced expiration - inactive when quiet

212

What can be said about the ion concentration of the blood and the filtrate

The same

213

What effect does an As sub unit have

Stimuates adenylate cyclase

214

Names of the classic endocrine glands

Pituiary Thyroid Parathyroid Adrenal Pancreas Ovaries testes

215

What is the typical system systolic pressure

120 mmHg

216

What effect does doubling the radius have on the resistance in the airways, and why

Resitance inversely propertiontal to the fourth power of the radius, so double radius = 16x decrease in resistance

217

Give examples of molecules secreted from the anterior pittuitary gland

Gh, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH

218

Which kind of receptor elicits the fastest response

Ligand gated ion channel

219

What are typical ExC fluid ion concentrations

K = 5mM Na = 150 mM Cl = 150mM

220

For the given condition state the effect on the dissociation curve and the effect on the haemoglobin Increased PCO2

Shift right Carry less O2

221

What is standard atomspheric pressure

760 mmHg

222

Describe how Vasopressin is released

Hypothalamic osmosreceptors detect increase in plasma osmolality Activation causes depolarisation in neurosecretory cells Vasopressin synth in neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus then travels down the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract where it is stored at the nerve terminals Opening of VGCC causes Ca influx and promotion of vesicle fusion and exocytosis and release of vasopressin

223

What would the effect of excreeting too much Na be

Low BP

224

How does 2,3-DPH influence Hb affinity for O2

Binds to B globin subunit results in decreased affinity

225

Does changing the radius have a large influence on the flow of air

Yes

226

What is the average daily intake of Na

150mmol

227

Where are large molecules secreted from

Anteriro Adeno

228

Do arterioles and venules run close togehter

Yes

229

How are Mg and Ca reabsorbed in the thick ascending lim

Reabsorption of Na and K drive paracellular transport of Ca and Mg

230

What is a normal blood glucose range

4-6mmol/L

231

What is a typical blood volume range

4-6L

232

Define a knockout

Complete deletion of a gene - no expression

233

What is the effect of nicotine on vasopressin release

Increases vasopressin release

234

What is distinct about the leakiest type of capillary and where are the often found

Incomplete basement membrane Found in sinosids of the liver

235

Define renal failure

A decrease in GF that leads to an increase in serum creatinine and urea

236

What is the name of the protein responsible for regulation of the CLCK channel

Barttin

237

Which region of the kidney is responsible for the bulk of the reabsorption

Proximal tubule

238

By what methods can we increase mean arterial pressure

Vasoconstriction - symp A1 adrenoreceptor agonist ie. phenylephrine Increased cardiac output - symp B1 adrenoreceptor agonists e.g. dobutamine Improved contractility - digitalis inhibits the Na/K ATPase

239

What is a resrtictive lung disease

Decrease in forced vital capacity below expected value and decrease in peak flow

240

What are the components of elastic recoil in the lungs

Antatomical compoent - elastic nature of cells Surface tension - generated at air-fluid interface

241

Do lymphatic ducts contain valves

Can have flap and pocket valves as well as primary lymph valves

242

What effects of thyroid hormones are similar to other endocrine hormones

Insulin and GH stimulate protein synth. Glucagon and GH stimulate glycogenolysis and free fatty acid synthesis

243

Recall the pathway for the iodination of tyrosine to form T3 and T4

I2+Tyr-->T1 2I2 + Tyr --> T2 T1+T2 --> T3 T2+T2 --> T4

244

Give to examples of ACE inhibitors

Ramipril, captopril

245

Name the two sets of pleural membranes

Visceral pleura - lining the lungs Parietal pleura - lines the inside of the ribcage

246

What are loop diuretics commonly prescribed for

Treatment of hypertnesion - decrease ECFV

247

How is the role of b-intercalated cells

H+ reab HCO3- secretion

248

What is TV

Tidal volume - volume of air normally expired and inspired

249

Does blood have a pressure without the haert beating

Yes

250

Which lung volumes add to give vital capacity

VC = TV + IRV + ERV

251

Is the aorta an elastic artery

Yes

252

What is meant by tubular secretion

Substances are released from the peritubular capillaries into the nephron

253

Give some examples of NANC neurotransmitters

NO(g) Substance P ATP Vasoactive intestinal peptide

254

Define acute renal failure

A drop in GFR lasting hours or days

255

Name one pharmacological use for agonists of the adrenoreceptors

Salbutamol, agonist of the B2 adrenoreceptors causes bronchodilation

256

What factor influences the resitance

Diameter of the blood vessel

257

For the given condition state the effect on the dissociation curve and the effect on the haemoglobin Increased 2,3-DPH

Shift right Carry less O2

258

What is VC

Vital capacity - maximum achievable tidal volume

259

What is Bartters syndrome

Autsomal recessive disease results in polyuria, salt wasting, hypotension, hypokalaemia, metabolic acidosis and hypocakcaemia

260

After what stage does renal failure become progressive

Mild

261

What are some of the detrimental effects of increased blood glucose

Diabetic neuropathy - degredation of the perineurium leading to loss of sensation, gangrene and blindness

262

What are the effects of mAChR agonists

Agonists include pilocarpine and muscarine Cause increased salivation, tear flow, sweating and decreased BP

263

What are typical IC ion conc. NA K CL

Na = 15mM K = 100mM Cl = 4 mM

264

Can the pleural membranes slide easily over each other and seprarate easily

No they do slide easily over but hard to separate

265

Does the beta-gamma complex have any downstream effects

Yes can effect enzymes and ligand gate ion channels

266

What do you see in the ascending limb

Na and Cl move out into the interstitial fluid

267

How can the ECF be subdivided

Interstitial fluid Plasma Transcellular fluid (CSF, urine, stomach acid)

268

Which region of the LOH is peremebable to H20 but not Na or Cl

Thin descending limb

269

What happens to Cl- brought into the cell

Cl- leaves through basolateral CLCK channel

270

How is blood pressure regulated in the short term

Baroreceptors monitor pressure

271

What are the determinants of of systolic pressure

Ejection velocity Stroke volume

272

What is the tranport maximum for glucose

375 mg min

273

What can be seen in ROMK knockout mice to study Bartters

Salt wasting, polyuria, Cl excretion

274

When filling the lungs with air what needs to be overcome before increased pressure leads to increased lung volume

Initial surface tension

275

For the given condition state the effect on the dissociation curve and the effect on the haemoglobin Decreased temp

Shift left Carry more O2

276

What is distal renal acidosis

DIsease state where the pH of the body fluids is too low resulting in metabolic acidosis

277

What do the agonists of B2 receptors in the blood vessels cause

Vasodilation

278

Define transgenic

Mutations that alter the amino acid sequence of a gene

279

What is the name of the structure which co-ordinates the endocrine galnds

Hypothalamic-hypophyseal axis

280

Name an agonist of the GABA a receptor and its mechanism of action

Phenobarbitone - causes opening of all GABA a channels in the brain leading to inhibition of all brain activity

281

What do you see in the descending limb

Water movement out of the filtrate

282

What is FEV1

Forced expiratory volume in 1 second

283

Which enzymes are secreted by the exocrine pancreas

Amylase, trypsin

284

WHat is the rate of oxygen supply reguired by the body

250 ml / min

285

What is the role of surfactant

Surfactant increase surface tension in the samller alveoli allowing them to remain open despite pressure differences which would result in the flow of air into the larger alveloi

286

What happens to the ventillation/perfusion ration as you move from the base to the apex of the lungs

Increase - both decrease resulting in a larger ratio

287

What are the effects of neurosecretory cell stim

VP release, feeling of thirst

288

What are the general classes of ligand protein targets

Enzymes, receptors, transporters and ion channels

289

What is the affect of ecstasy on VP release

Increases

290

What is the average cardiac output

4.9L

291

Where is the kidney located

Between T12 and L3 vertebrae

292

How does the sympathetic nervous systemcontrol airway diameter

Noradrenaline acts at B2 receptors causing dialtion

293

What is the fuctions of the thyroid hormones T3 and T4

Increase the Basal metabolic rate

294

List some examples of kidney diseases

Polycystic kidney disease - increased size Ectopic kidney - extra pelvic kidney Horseshoe kideny - fusion of kidneys Renal ageniesis - No developement of kidneys

295

What happens during quiet inspiration

Diaphragm contracts and moves down, intercostals go up and out Increase thoracic volume causing a decrease in pressure so air moves into the lungs

296

What factors can lead to increased airway resistance

Decrease diameter of the airways, through increased mucus secreations, tissue odema and airway collapse

297

What are the main types of cells in the late distal tubule

Principal Cells alpha intercalated beta intercalated

298

What is normal renal threshold of glucose compared to the normal plasma glucose levels

Renal th glucose = 16 mmol L-1 Normal blood glucose = 4-6 mmol L-1 (almost three times normal level)

299

Explain the mechanism by which the hypothalamus controls the release of hormones from the neurohypophysis

The hormones oxytocin and vasopressin are synthesised and secreted from neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus, then then travel down the axons of these cells where there are released into the rich plexus of BV from the neurohypophsis

300

What is the normal value of airway resitance

1.5 cm H20 S L

301

What are the effects of thyroid hormones

Proteins synthesis, increased use of glucose and free fatty acids, increased lipolysis

302

What are the main fludin compartments of the body

Intracellular fluid Extraceluular fluid

303

What are the causes of the incisura (in the aorta) and the dichrotic notch (in arteries)

Closure of the valves governing the exits of the heart

304

Why is there a need to Hb

O2 dissolved in the plasma alone isnt suff. to supply the tissues

305

Give an example of an effector of the GPCR pathway

Adenylate cyclase - ATP--> cAMP activates PK-A

306

What is meant by dual innervation

The way in which tissues may be innervated by both sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS

307

What is the role of the principla cells

H2O and Na reab Secretion of K and H

308

Explain the regional differences in perfusion and ventilation in the lungs

Both greater at the base than the apex

309

Is it true that anything that alters Na content will change the volume of the plasma and the blood pressure

Yes

310

Where are receptors for catecholamines and peptide hormones found

In the PM

311

Disadvantages to using the ROMK knockout mice

Major difference in that mice show acidosis but humans show alkalosis

312

What is the difference between type 1 and 2 diabetes

Type 1 - beta cells dont make insulin or cells cant take up glucose Type 2 much more common tissues do not respond to insluin

313

List the 5 korkoff sounds

First - lound tapping Second - Muting of tapping Third - Pounding Fourth - Muffling Fifth - Silence

314

What is ERV

Expiratory reserve volume - The volume of air which can be expired after a normal quiet expiration

315

Where is the basic resp rhythm generated

Medulla oblongata

316

What is the effect of the secondary muscles of inspiration

Increases speed and size od insp

317

What are the different types of chemical signalling

Endocrine - large distances, from gland into blood Paracrine - into the extracellular space Autocrine - chemical binds to receptors on the cell that secreted it

318

How many Ach molecules must bind to an nAChR to activate them

2

319

What are the affects of angiotensin II

Powerful vasoconstrictor leads to increase in blood pressure

320

What kind of Nt is used at post ganglionic synapses in the sympathetic NS

NA Alpha and beta adrenergic receptors

321

Recall the pathway for angiotenisn II production

Angiotensinogen Angiotensin I Angiotensin II

322

What enzyme catlayses the cleavage of angiotensinogen

Renin

323

What factors leads to insulin secretion from beta cells

Increased blood glucose Increase blood arginine or leucine Breakdown of lipids to tri-fatty acids

324

What is the typical pulmonary systolic pressure

25mmHG

325

Name the primary muscles of insp, active during quiet inspiration

External intercostal muscles Diaphragm

326

What is present in the bronchi but not the bronchioles that prevents it from collapse

Cartillage rings

327

What are the regions of the Loop of Henle

Thin descending limb Thin ascending limb Thick ascending limb

328

What is RV

Reserve volume - the volume of air that remains in the respiratory system after a maximum forced expiration

329

Which two centres control the rate and depth of breathing

Pons Pneumotaxic centre - inhibits resp rate Apneustic centre - increases the depth and reduces the rate of resp

330

What are the two types of dead space in the respiratory system

Anatomical dead space => Volume of the conducting zone Physiological dead space => Volume of respiratory system not taking part in gas exc (conducting zone + non fucntional areas)

331

How many lung branches

23-24