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1

What is the name of the gland that secretes saliva below the tounge

Sub-lingual gland

2

How does sexual reproduction lead to gentic diversity

Random assortment of paternal chromosomes into the gametes, exchange of genetic information during gametogensis

3

Which layer is thinner, epidermis or dermis

Epidermis

4

What are the roles of the nerve plexus

Sense liminal contents and control muscles and glands

5

FAST OR SLOW Use aerobic resp

Slow

6

FAST OR SLOW Net prod of 38 ATP

Slow

7

What overides the trigger in males preventing meotic transfer

Meiosis preventing substance (MPS)

8

AEROBIC OR ANAEROBIC Stim of slow fibres

Aer

9

Define morula

Developmental stage where the embryo consists of a solid ball of cells within the zona pelucida

10

What are the different isofroms of creatine

Cytosolic and mitochondrial

11

What is occuring if the bolus is moving away from the anus

Vomitting

12

Name a toxin that blocks K+ channels

Dendrotoxin - from mamba snake

13

Which duct is degenerated in the male at 10 weeks

Paramesonephric (mullerian) duct

14

Where is renin released from

The juxtaglomerula apparatus - granular cells

15

How can the autosomes influence sexual differentiation

Testicular feminisation syndrome - low levels of cytosolic carrier protein means testosterone cant enter the cell and action of the testes is inhibited resulting in the development of the female phenotype due to low levels of oestrogen released from the testes and adrenal cortex

16

Name the associated structures found within the skin

Nails Hair Sebaceous glands Sweat glands

17

What aspects of kidney function does aldosterone regulate

Na content and conc of K+

18

Recall the pathway leading to the formation of active vit d3 compoind

7-dehydroxycholesterol pro-vitamin D3 Vitamin D3 Calcidiol Calcitriol Gene transcription

19

Where is MIS released from

Mesonephric ducts

20

What is the role of the Sertoli cells

Line the seminiferous tubules and contain vesciles in which the sperm develop

21

How does aldosterone exert its effects

Crosses cell membrane and binds to an intracellular mineralocorticodi receptor --> gene transcription Upreg: Na/K ATPase, ROMK ENaC and Na/H exchanger

22

What enzyme is responsible for the conversion of phosphcreatine and vice versa

Cretine kinase

23

What are the differences in gestation length can be seen in males and females

males 265 days females 266 days

24

What is the name of the sheath of connective tissue that surrounds the muscle fasicles/bundles

Perimysium

25

Two hormones produced by the testes

Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Testosterone

26

What are the roles of keratin and glycolipid in the stratum granulosum

Keratin forms durable filaments Glycolipids make the skin water resistant

27

What is the name of the lowest layer in the epidermis

Startum basale

28

Where might you find exceptions where the skin isnt acting as a physical barrier

Cuts/burns against vectors

29

Name the key layers of the epidermis

Stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum corneum

30

Phases of swallowing (deglutination

Oral phase Pharyngeal phase Oesphageal

31

What is the size of the human egg cell

100-150 um

32

What is the the function of the GI tract

Breakdown of ingested food which can be taken up into the body tissue

33

What are the layers of the skin

Epidermis, dermis, hypodermis

34

Explain how the skin acts as an immunological barrier

Langerhans/dendritic cells in stratum spinosum trigger immunolgical response

35

What is the average life cycle of a keratinocyte

2-4 weeks

36

What are main types of epidermal skin

Thick skin Thin skin

37

How many oogonia present at birth

Half a million

38

What cells does the hypodermis mainly consist of

Adipocyes

39

Explain how the skin acts as an inside-out barrier

Prevent water loss

40

What is Hirschprungs disease

Congenital disorder due to the absent development of the myenteric plexus, lack of GI innervation, enlarged colon requiring surgical removal

41

Whuch layer is the thickest of the eipidermis

Stratum sponosum

42

AEROBIC OR ANAEROBIC No change in strength

Ae

43

AEROBIC OR ANAEROBIC No change in number of fibres

An

44

Which nervous system mediates the primary peristaltic wave

ANS - Vagus

45

What is the male equiv of oogina

Spermatogonia

46

Where do the gonads develop and what do these regions contain

Gonadal ridges Conraining the mesonephros and internal tubules and ducts

47

Treatments for diabetes insipidus

Central - synthetic VP nasal spray Nephrogenic - no treatment

48

How is the GI tract organised structurally

Mucosa, sub-mucosa, muscularis, serosa

49

What is the pylorus

Opening from the stomach into the duodenum

50

AEROBIC OR ANAEROBIC Brief intense exercise

An

51

Name the regions of the colon

Cecum, ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid

52

Explain how the skin acts an outside-in barrier

Prevents entry of infectious agents

53

What are the different types of glands ans how is it they differ

Apocrine - associated with hairs, secrete into hair follicles Merocrine - Secrete perspiration directly at the surface of the skin

54

Which layer of the epidermis is most superficial

Statum corneum

55

How many layers of flat keratinocytes in the stratum granulosum

3-5

56

What happens to the morulla for it to become a blastocyst

Cavitation forming the blastocoel

57

What type of epithelium is found in the epidermal skin

Stratified, squamous keratinised epithelium

58

Name an antagonist of the nAChR

Curare

59

Name a toxin that prevents ACh release

Botulinum toxin Tetanus

60

WHat are the effects of renin release

Angiotensinogen --> Angiotensin I

61

What is the effect of the active verison of vitamin D3

Calcitriol binds to VDR receptor which acts as a transcription factor upregulating genes for Ca reab

62

What is the term used to secribe the fusion of gametes

Synagmy

63

Which two layers make up the muscularis

Circular muscle layer Longitudinal muscle layer

64

Which salivary gland is located below the mandible

Sub-mandibular gland

65

In which region of the GI tract does most absoption take place

Small intestin

66

Name the acessory structres of the skin

Nails, hair, glands,

67

What two molecules are produced in high quant in the startum granulosum

Keratin GLycolipid

68

What stimulates peristalsis

Distension of the GI tract by bolus (chyme)

69

What does MIS stand for

Meisosis inducing substance

70

FAST OR SLOW Take longer to contract

Slow

71

What is unique about the sratum lucidum

Only found in think skin

72

Other roles of calcitriol

Anti-tumour

73

In which layer of the skin are the acessory structures located

The dermis

74

WHat are the 3 cell types found within the lowest layer of the epidermis

Keratinocytes Tactile cells Melanocytes

75

Where is aldosterone released

Zona glomerullosa of adrenal cortex

76

AEROBIC OR ANAEROBIC Conversion of fast glycolytic (IIb) to fast oxidative (IIa)

Aer

77

Name given to the cells in the zygot

Blastomere

78

What are the spects of peristalsis

Oral contraction, aboral relaxation

79

What structure forms on on the anterior abdominal wall within a few weeks of fertilisation

Gonadal ridges

80

What is the role of the parotid gland

Secretes saliva in the parotid duct

81

Two roles of angiotensin II

Aldosterone release Vasoconstriction

82

Net effects of aldosterone release

Increase reab of Na and H2O Increase sec of K and H Inc ECFV

83

Are myocytes multi or uni nucleate

Multi

84

Name a toxin that blocks the Na+ channel

Tetrodotoxin

85

What are the main differences between the different types of epidermal skin

Thick - 5 layers, palm of hands and feet Thin - 4 layers rest of body

86

What are the nerve plexus involved in enteric control of the GI tract

Myenteric Plexus Submucosal plexus

87

Example of a fast glycolytic muscle

Biceps brachii

88

What are the consitiuents of the GI tract

Mouth, oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, rectum, anus

89

Explain how the skin acts a biochemical barrier

Sebum - bacterialsidal substances Sweat - lowers skin pH

90

What does the produce of the gene determining the male phenotype do

SRY - triggers the Sertoli cell fate

91

Which NS mediates the second peristalitic wave

Enteric

92

Metabolically expensive

Fast

93

How many sperm reach the egg, why is this the case

100s of functional sperm Some under/over developed Some may go the wrong way Some may get lost in the cervix/cervical cavity

94

What is the role of of the large intestine

Absorption of water salt and sugar from the chyme

95

What happens during pronuclear fusion

Sperm nucleus forms male pronucleus, egg completes meiosis and forms the male pronucelus pronuceli then fuse on the metaphase plate

96

What is the size of the human sperm cell

6 um

97

Until when is meiotic transfer halted in males

Puberty - testes cords become testes

98

Do the ovaries require the presence of oocytes for normal development

Yes

99

What do spermatogonia divide by

Mitosis

100

Do primordial germ cells initially look simialar

Yes

101

What are the main roles of the stomach

Storage of food, mechanical digestion

102

Do the enteroendocrine cells act only in a humoiral way

No can also act in a paracrine way

103

What does the stratum corneum consist of

15-30 dead, keratinised cells, high lipid content permeability barrier

104

Enteroendocrine cells are ...

Single cells scattered throughout the GI tract

105

AEROBIC OR ANAEROBIC Causes increased diameter of the fibres

An

106

What is the role of the enteroendocrine cells

Detect luminal contentsand respond by releasing peptide transmitters that alter the function of the GI tract

107

Which biological molecule is the stomach responsible for initiating the digestion of

Proteins

108

What cell is in the majourity in the starum basale

Keratinocytes

109

Which region of troponin does Ca2+ bidning cause the conformational change moving tropomysoin out of the actin-myosin binding site

Tn-C

110

What is the name of the repeat unit within a myofibril

Sarcomere

111

What is the role of Anti-Mullerian hormone

Inhibits the development of the paramesonephric (mullerian) ducts

112

What can be said about keratinocytes in the stratum lucidum

Densely packed, anucelate, no organelles

113

FAST OR SLOWRapidly fatiguing

Fast

114

Do the testes require the presence of sperm for normal development

No

115

What is the role of nebulin

Dictates the length of the actin filament

116

Name the accessory structures associated with the GI tract

Parotid gland Sub-mandibular gland Sublingual glands Pancrease Liver Gallbladder Tongue

117

What are the characteristics of muscle

Responsive to chemical and electrical signals Conductive Contractile Extensile Elastic

118

Which regions in the innermost layer of the GI tract and what does it consist of

Mucosa - consists of mucous epithelium, lamina propria and muscularis mucosae

119

What is also needed for the maintenance of the male phenotype

SOX9

120

What are the zymogen granules

Granules containing inactive proenzymes that are to be secreted Only once secreted are there proteins cleaved to their active forms Prevents damage to own cells

121

Why is the genetoc information in the sperm super condensed

protects the genetic information from damage

122

What must happened before fusion of the pronuclei

Genetic information must first decondense

123

Does peristalsis require CNS input

No

124

Which regions make up the large int

Colon rectum anus

125

What is the difference between the two layers of the dermis

Papillary - connective tissue, interdigitated with epidermis, mantians attachement Reticular layer - irregular, dense connective tissue, rich in collagen and acts as a shock absorber

126

what type of NT and receptor is used at the neuromuscular junction

ACh nAchR

127

Where does fertilisation occur

Ampulla of uterine tube

128

What regions of the nephron does aldosterone act on

Collecting duct Late distal tubule

129

Which layer is referred to as the peritoneum and consists of connective tissue

Serosa

130

Which structures mediate peristalsis

Myenteric plexus

131

Clear differences can be seen in the external genitalia of males and females 12 weeks in, but when are the adult genitalia visuble

After puberty

132

Symptoms of botulism

Dry mouth, double vision, diarrhoea, vomitting, muscle weakness, paralysis

133

Which gene determines testis formation and where is it found

SRY Y chr

134

FAST OR SLOW Metabolically economical

Slow

135

FAST OR SLOW Net prod 2 ATP and lactic acid

FAST

136

When is cretine used

Is a readily available source of energy for the first few mins of intense exercise

137

Motility and secretion in the GI tract are controlled by ...

Reflexes

138

What structures can be found between the muscle fassicles

Blood vessels and nerve branches

139

What is special about the jejenum and the ileum

No definable boundary, highly folded pilcae, large surface area, 3 strata of folding

140

Where and by what type of division are the gametes formed

Gonads Meiosis

141

What is the role of the female repodctive tract in regards to the sperm

Filters sperms

142

Term to describe the first division

Clevage

143

What are the main differences between intrinsic and extrinsic control reflexes in the GI tract

Intrinsic - short, internal stimuli, local nerve circuits Extrinsic - long, external stimuli, CNS involvement

144

Name of mature male reproductive cell

Spermatozoan

145

What must sperm undergo in the female reproducitve tract

Capacitation - acrosomal reaction and motility changes

146

How does botulinum prevent Ach rlease

Is an endoprotease which cleaves proteins required for the exocytosis of ACH

147

AEROBIC OR ANAEROBIC Enlargement of the myofibril size by adding new myofilaments

An

148

What is the role of the saliva

Solvent for taste Cleans and protects teeth Digestion of carbs and lipids Lubrication Antimicrobial

149

What is the role of CAP Z and alpha actin

Make up the Z disc and mediate actin anchorage

150

FAST OR SLOW Fatigue resistant

SLow

151

Explain how UV is required for cacitriol biosynthesis

Converts 7-dehydroxycholesterol to vitamin D3

152

What stimulates the release of rening

Symp nervous syst stim -compounds released from the macular densa

153

Which sarcomere regions shorten during contraction

I band Hzone Z disc distance

154

Decribe the process of salivation

Acinar cells produce primary saliva and secrete into the intercalated duct. Saliva travels down striated duct where the ductal cells modify it by reab Na and Cl secreting carbonate. After the striated duct the saliva then passes into the excretory duct where the myoepithelial cells contract following nervous system stimulation to bring saliva into the mouth

155

What is the active version of vitamin D3 called

Calcitriol

156

How many head cycles how many times per second

5

157

What are the two layers of the dermis

Papillary layer Reticular layer

158

What are the two aspects to the role of the GI tract

Digestion and absorption

159

What are the causes of muscle fatigue

ATP synthesis decline Decrease in pH Failure of motor neurones

160

WHat is the name of the connective tissue structure that surrounds muscle and is continuous with the tendons

Epimysium

161

How many primitive oogonia present at 9 months

9 million

162

Define chyme

Semi fluid mass of partially digested ppod that is expelled from the stomach into the duodenum

163

If no gonads develop which phneotype developes

Female - default

164

What is the endomysium

Connective tissue sheath that surrounds each individual muscle fibre

165

What is the role of tropomodulin

Caps minus end of actin filament preventing depolimerisation

166

How can botulinum be used clinically

Treatment of cross eyed BOTOX

167

Which regions make up the small intestine

Duodenum, jejunum, ileum

168

What mechanism used during anaerobic conditions to supply additional ATP molecules for the respiring muscle

Creatinine

169

The hypodermis can be described as ...

A subcutaneous layer

170

Which enzyme is secreted by the sub-lingual gland

Lipase

171

Types of diabetes insipidus

Central - CNS problem - no VP secreted Nephrogenic - No response to VP

172

What triggers oogonia to oocyte transition

Meiosis inducing substance

173

Which regions of the sarcomere dont change in length during contraction

A band

174

What are the three types of motility seen in the stomach

Gastric accommodation Trituration Gastric emptying

175

Where is majority of angiotensin I converted and why

In lungs - highest density of capillaries ACE

176

Which enzyme is secreted by the parotid gland

Alpha amylase

177

Define swallowing

Process by which food passes from the mouth to the stomach

178

Describe the structure of the salivary gland

Acinus of 12+ acinar cells around a central lumen

179

what is a myocyte

A muscle cell

180

Where can the myonuclei of myocytes be found

The periphery

181

Where in the skin is vit D3 synthesised

Stratum basale and spinosum of epidermis

182

FAST OR SLOW Take <10ms to contract

Fast

183

Example of a slow oxidative muscle fibre

Soleus musxle

184

Is the epidermis a self regenerating tissue made of keratinocytes

Yess

185

What are the component parts of saliva

Water Mucous Alpha-amylase Lipase Other proteins

186

Example of a fast oxidative muscle

Gastercnemius

187

Put these in order Muscle Myofibril Sarcomere Myocyte Muscle Fassicle

Sarcomere Myofibril Myocyte Fassicle Muscle

188

At what stage do the PGCS differentiate What do they become

5 weeks Gonia

189

Name some examples of gut peptides

Gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin

190

Where are the gut peptides secreted from

Enteroendocrine cells in the mucosa

191

What glands does thermoregulation involve

Merocrine/eccrine glands

192

How long after fetilisation and ovulation does implantation into the endometrium

3 after fert 7-8 ov

193

What happens as keratinocytes differentiate

Detach from the basement membrane and move up through the epidermis dividing asymmetrically

194

Explains how the skin acts as a physical barrier

Keratin layer prevents entry of infectious agents

195

Reacll the sphincter muscles in the GI tract

Upper oesphageal Lower oesophageal Pyloric Ileocaecal Internal anal External anal

196

What causes causes Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum

Na+ and depolarisation

197

Where do the primordial germ cells develop

Close to the allantois

198

What happens if the male phenotype determining gene is not present

Follicle cell develops

199

What type of reaction converts calcidiol to calcitriol

Hydroxylation

200

Explain what happens during the power stroke

The actin myosin cross bridge acts as an ATPase hydrolysing the bound ATP TO ADP and Pi allowing the actin to return to its relaxed position

201

What does the gestation length differences suggest about males and females at birth

Females more mature

202

What causes renin release

Drop in ECFV

203

Which duct degenerated in the female at 10 weeks

Mesonephric ducts (Wolffian)

204

What are the four roles of the stomach

Motility Digestion Protection Absorption

205

Are keratinocytes in the statum granulosum mitotic or post mitoitc

Post

206

What type of hormone is aldosterone

Mineralocorticoid

207

What are the main control mechanisms in the GI tract

ANS - sympathetic inhibits digestion and the parasympathetic stimulates ENS - Independent from the CNS Gut peptides - paracrine or hormonal

208

Name the different glands found in the skin

Mammillary, sweat, sebaceous, ceruminous

209

Oogonia and oocytes divide by

Mitosis (oogonia) Meiosis (oocyes)

210

What is the role of titin

Positions myosin filaments halfway between Z discs and act as sprint to prevent over contraction, anchors the myosin filaments to the Z disc

211

What are the main roles of the skin

Protection - impact, chem, infect Temp control Synth/Storage - Vit D and Ca2+ Sensory Reception Excretion/secretion

212

What are the two main cell types of the stratum spinosum

Keratinocytes Dendritic cells

213

How long does it take form the sperm to develop

60-75 days

214

What is significant about the cells in the stratum granulosum

Last to have nuclei

215

What are the functions of skeletal muscle

Movement Support of the soft tissue Maintenance of body posture and position Communication Control of openings Maintenance of body posture

216

Where is 95% of creatine found

Muscles

217

AEROBIC OR ANAEROBIC Stim of fast fibres

An

218

Which organ consists of the skin

Integumentary system

219

Name of the mature female reproductive cell

Ovum

220

FAST OR SLOW Anaerobic

Fast