Quiz 1 Flashcards Preview

RA > Quiz 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Quiz 1 Deck (75):
1

The care of the deceased to recreate natural form and color

(definition) Restorative Art

2

refers to the shape of a surface structure which is recognizable by its outline an surface-movement

Form

3

Form involves 3 dimensions:

Length, width, projection

4

those rays of light reflected form the surface

color

5

Who were the 1st to practice restorative art?

Egyptians- several thousand years ago

6

How did Egyptians do RA and why?

believed in reincarnation. Prepared dead so they would be in "perfect" condition 3000 years later. Scars were corrected, missing limbs replaced, fractures splinted, cheeks and hollows were filled.

7

RA during Middle Ages

Art of Egyptians fell to disuse as the populace was unable to read. Doctors took care of privileged class- no effort made at restoration.

8

13th and 14th centuries

post-mortem care of royalty and the landed gentry resembled Egyptians. Blood and organs removed, remains immersed in vats of preserving liquids and powders. Deceased not presentable for viewing purposes.

9

Italy during Renaissance

death masks were made as a "heroic" statue. Artistic practice

10

When did Restorative Art begin

the end of the 19th Century in the US and Canada. After the Civil War. First attempt was similar to plastic surgery but failed due to the process of healing in nature

11

Useful in surface construction but had disadvantages such as: it didn't color properly, difficult to mold, drained moisture "moisture wicking" causing tissues to shrink

Plaster of Paris

12

Too dark and oily, difficult to hide with coloring material

Sculptors clay

13

dried out and shrank

cotton and collodion

14

used 1914-15. coloring presented a problem.

melted yellow soap

15

Early 20th century

mortuary chemical companies turned to production of formaldehyde fluids- metallic poisons illegal

16

mid 1920's

restorative waxes used

17

require minimum effort, skill or time to complete

minor restorations

18

correcting misaligned fracture, hypodermic tissue building, reduction of swelling, subtissue surgery, waxing lips abrasions sutures or razor burns, suturing clean cuts, small hair replacement, bleaching and concealing minor discoloration, removal and restoration of fever sores/scabs

examples of minor restorations

19

require a long period of time, extensive, require technical skill

major restorations

20

restoration of a full head of hair, subtissue surgery of swollen neck, buck- teeth, deep wound preparation, care of deep lacerations, repair of multiple fractures, third degree burns, skin slip, dismemberment of a limb, complete loss of a part

time and extensive repairs of major restorations

21

distorted portion of the face/cranium, wax surfacing over a large wound, modeling a facial feature, achieving natural appearance when masking a completely discolored face with opaque cosmetics

technical skill of major restorations

22

you need permission to undertake,,,,

major or minor restorative art

23

you do not need permission to undertake....

those incurred in preparation of the remains, visual swelling, leakage, or tissue discoloring

24

the study of the face and features. deals only with the surface.

physiognomy

25

differences of paired features, the two sides of a feature or both halves of the face

asymmetry

26

where is the greatest variation?

ears

27

the most common characteristic of each part of a feature.

norm

28

the front or forward

anterior

29

a position closer to the vertex of the skull

superior

30

position behind or toward the rear

posterior

31

position below or toward the feet

inferior

32

position closer to the median plane

medial

33

position farther from the median plane; to the side

lateral

34

refers to the two sides

bilateral

35

vertical plane which divides the head into left and right sides; midline of the face

median plane

36

cut across the median plane at right angles

horizontal planes

37

slanted; neither vertical nor horizontal

oblique plane

38

surface exhibiting a minimum curvature but differing in direction from the adjacent surfaces

surface plane

39

jutting out of a part or structure in comparison with another structure or part

projection

40

state of standing forth as to be readily seen

prominence

41

the act of receding

recession

42

sunken (concave) area or part

depression

43

head is long or rounded, high cranial vertex while forehead is full or dome like. nose is long and narrow, lips are thin

White Race

44

long, narrow head with a low cranial vertex. Nose broad and flat. Thick everted lips, projecting face, recessive chin

Black Race

45

short broad head and high cranial vertex. wide cheekbones and small nose and slanting eyes. distance from nasal root to inner corner of the eye is minimal

Yellow Race

46

bony structures of each person are....

alike in name and location

47

oval, egg shape, oblong

skull form

48

Width is 2/3rds its length

classical form of skull

49

facial portion of the skull is small- about 1/8 of the area of the cranium

skull at birth

50

1/2 the size of the cranial area

adult facial portion

51

the skull grows rapidly from

birth to age 7

52

the sutures of the skull begin to ossify at age

22

53

skull is lighter, smaller, and cranial capacity is 10% less, walls are thinner, muscular ridges less pronounced, vertex is not as high, cranial vault appears flattened. Rounded and smoother facial bones

female skull

54

reduction of the size of the upper and lower jaws- due to loss of teeth and absorption of alveolar processes

characteristics of old age

55

Occipital (1), Parietal (2), Temporal (2), Frontal (1)

bones of cranium- larger and simpler

56

Nasal (2), Zygomatic (2), Maxilla (2), Mandible (1)

bones of face- complex

57

lowest part of the back and base of skull. large opening - Foramen Magnum

Occipital bone

58

2 bones- form sides and back of cranium. smooth and convex. WIDEST PART OF CRANIUM is Parietal eminences!

Parietal Bones (2)

59

create the lower portion of the sides of the cranium. lie below parietal bones

Temporal Bones (2)

60

vertical portion of the temporal bone. sever impact causes swollen and discolored eyes

squama

61

projects from squama. used to establish the widest part of the face and locate the correct position of a modeled ear. divides the length of ear into two equal parts.
WIDEST PART OF FACE is measured between the two...

zygomatic arch

62

small oval depression on the under-surface of the temporal bone. socket where the condyle of the lower jaw fits and acts as a hinge.

mandibular fossa

63

located under the ear. serves as the attachment of the sternocleidomastoid muscle- WIDEST PART OF NECK

mastoid process

64

forms the forehead and anterior portion of the roof of the skull. a single bone. convex

frontal bone

65

Where is the greatest deposits of melanin found?

hair

66

lies in the stratum corneum and in the fat of the derma and superficial fascia. yellow pigment contributes greatly to the sallowness of the kin coloring

carotene

67

outermost layer of the skin. no lymph or blood vessels.

epidermis (epithelium)

68

deeper layer of skin. tough, flexible and elastic.

derma (connective tissue)

69

covered by tissues which are dense, composed of muscles and large amount of fat

chin

70

contains considerable amount of fat. superficial fascia is tougher and more fibrous than at other parts

cheek

71

inner surface of each lip is connected to the corresponding gum by a fold of mucous membrane called the frenulum. upper frenulum is usually larger than the lower.

mouth

72

skin is thin and closely bound to the underlying perichondrium, covered with fine hairs and furnished with sebaceous glands most numerous in the concha and scapha. the lobe is composed of tough areolar and adipose tissues

ear

73

lids are devoid of fat. easily distended and infiltrated with tissue fluid in edema or by blood in ecchymosis or hemorrhage. integument is extremely thin on eyelids

eye

74

wings of the nose are composed of fatty and fibrous tissue covered by skin

nose

75

tissues are relatively thing and follow the convolutions of the bony framework. skin is thicker than in any other part of the body.

scalp and forehead