Flashcards in Quiz 1 Deck (75):
The care of the deceased to recreate natural form and color
(definition) Restorative Art
refers to the shape of a surface structure which is recognizable by its outline an surface-movement
Form involves 3 dimensions:
Length, width, projection
those rays of light reflected form the surface
Who were the 1st to practice restorative art?
Egyptians- several thousand years ago
How did Egyptians do RA and why?
believed in reincarnation. Prepared dead so they would be in "perfect" condition 3000 years later. Scars were corrected, missing limbs replaced, fractures splinted, cheeks and hollows were filled.
RA during Middle Ages
Art of Egyptians fell to disuse as the populace was unable to read. Doctors took care of privileged class- no effort made at restoration.
13th and 14th centuries
post-mortem care of royalty and the landed gentry resembled Egyptians. Blood and organs removed, remains immersed in vats of preserving liquids and powders. Deceased not presentable for viewing purposes.
Italy during Renaissance
death masks were made as a "heroic" statue. Artistic practice
When did Restorative Art begin
the end of the 19th Century in the US and Canada. After the Civil War. First attempt was similar to plastic surgery but failed due to the process of healing in nature
Useful in surface construction but had disadvantages such as: it didn't color properly, difficult to mold, drained moisture "moisture wicking" causing tissues to shrink
Plaster of Paris
Too dark and oily, difficult to hide with coloring material
dried out and shrank
cotton and collodion
used 1914-15. coloring presented a problem.
melted yellow soap
Early 20th century
mortuary chemical companies turned to production of formaldehyde fluids- metallic poisons illegal
restorative waxes used
require minimum effort, skill or time to complete
correcting misaligned fracture, hypodermic tissue building, reduction of swelling, subtissue surgery, waxing lips abrasions sutures or razor burns, suturing clean cuts, small hair replacement, bleaching and concealing minor discoloration, removal and restoration of fever sores/scabs
examples of minor restorations
require a long period of time, extensive, require technical skill
restoration of a full head of hair, subtissue surgery of swollen neck, buck- teeth, deep wound preparation, care of deep lacerations, repair of multiple fractures, third degree burns, skin slip, dismemberment of a limb, complete loss of a part
time and extensive repairs of major restorations
distorted portion of the face/cranium, wax surfacing over a large wound, modeling a facial feature, achieving natural appearance when masking a completely discolored face with opaque cosmetics
technical skill of major restorations
you need permission to undertake,,,,
major or minor restorative art
you do not need permission to undertake....
those incurred in preparation of the remains, visual swelling, leakage, or tissue discoloring
the study of the face and features. deals only with the surface.
differences of paired features, the two sides of a feature or both halves of the face
where is the greatest variation?
the most common characteristic of each part of a feature.
the front or forward
a position closer to the vertex of the skull
position behind or toward the rear
position below or toward the feet
position closer to the median plane
position farther from the median plane; to the side
refers to the two sides
vertical plane which divides the head into left and right sides; midline of the face
cut across the median plane at right angles
slanted; neither vertical nor horizontal
surface exhibiting a minimum curvature but differing in direction from the adjacent surfaces
jutting out of a part or structure in comparison with another structure or part
state of standing forth as to be readily seen
the act of receding
sunken (concave) area or part
head is long or rounded, high cranial vertex while forehead is full or dome like. nose is long and narrow, lips are thin
long, narrow head with a low cranial vertex. Nose broad and flat. Thick everted lips, projecting face, recessive chin
short broad head and high cranial vertex. wide cheekbones and small nose and slanting eyes. distance from nasal root to inner corner of the eye is minimal
bony structures of each person are....
alike in name and location
oval, egg shape, oblong
Width is 2/3rds its length
classical form of skull
facial portion of the skull is small- about 1/8 of the area of the cranium
skull at birth
1/2 the size of the cranial area
adult facial portion
the skull grows rapidly from
birth to age 7
the sutures of the skull begin to ossify at age
skull is lighter, smaller, and cranial capacity is 10% less, walls are thinner, muscular ridges less pronounced, vertex is not as high, cranial vault appears flattened. Rounded and smoother facial bones
reduction of the size of the upper and lower jaws- due to loss of teeth and absorption of alveolar processes
characteristics of old age
Occipital (1), Parietal (2), Temporal (2), Frontal (1)
bones of cranium- larger and simpler
Nasal (2), Zygomatic (2), Maxilla (2), Mandible (1)
bones of face- complex
lowest part of the back and base of skull. large opening - Foramen Magnum
2 bones- form sides and back of cranium. smooth and convex. WIDEST PART OF CRANIUM is Parietal eminences!
Parietal Bones (2)
create the lower portion of the sides of the cranium. lie below parietal bones
Temporal Bones (2)
vertical portion of the temporal bone. sever impact causes swollen and discolored eyes
projects from squama. used to establish the widest part of the face and locate the correct position of a modeled ear. divides the length of ear into two equal parts.
WIDEST PART OF FACE is measured between the two...
small oval depression on the under-surface of the temporal bone. socket where the condyle of the lower jaw fits and acts as a hinge.
located under the ear. serves as the attachment of the sternocleidomastoid muscle- WIDEST PART OF NECK
forms the forehead and anterior portion of the roof of the skull. a single bone. convex
Where is the greatest deposits of melanin found?
lies in the stratum corneum and in the fat of the derma and superficial fascia. yellow pigment contributes greatly to the sallowness of the kin coloring
outermost layer of the skin. no lymph or blood vessels.
deeper layer of skin. tough, flexible and elastic.
derma (connective tissue)
covered by tissues which are dense, composed of muscles and large amount of fat
contains considerable amount of fat. superficial fascia is tougher and more fibrous than at other parts
inner surface of each lip is connected to the corresponding gum by a fold of mucous membrane called the frenulum. upper frenulum is usually larger than the lower.
skin is thin and closely bound to the underlying perichondrium, covered with fine hairs and furnished with sebaceous glands most numerous in the concha and scapha. the lobe is composed of tough areolar and adipose tissues
lids are devoid of fat. easily distended and infiltrated with tissue fluid in edema or by blood in ecchymosis or hemorrhage. integument is extremely thin on eyelids
wings of the nose are composed of fatty and fibrous tissue covered by skin