Flashcards in Quiz 1 Deck (77)
What does alignment include?
General Skeletal Architecture
General Contour of Bone
Alignment of Bones Relative to Adjacent Bones
What is aberrant size of bones?
Gross enlargement of bone seen in conditions such as gigantism, acromegaly, or Paget’s disease
Grossly undersized bone may be related to congenital, metabolic, or endocrine abnormalities
What does general skeletal architecture include?
-aberrant size of bones
-absence of any bones
What can a cervical rib cause?
transverse process of C7 because elongated: can cause neurological or vascular issues
What is included with general contour of bone?
-internal or external irregularities
-cortical outline of each bone
- any bony outgrowth of spurs at joint margin
- breaks in continuity of cortex, signifying fracture
-past surgical site marking
The cortical outline of bone should be:
smooth and continuous
Bony outgrowth of spurs at joint margins may be indicative of:
degenerative joint changes or may result from tension at areas of tissue attachment
What can sharp angles in the cortex be a sign of?
What is included in alignment of bones relative to adjacent bones
What is evaluated with bone density?
general bone density
local density changes
Healthy cortex shows up with ____ density than cancellous bone and appears as ____ mrgin along bone shafts
When is trabeculae altered?
when mineralization of bone is altered
How is image of trabeculae described?
thin, delicate, coarsened, smudged or fluffy
What is fluffly trabecular?
represent random proliferation of both osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity, as seen in skull of patient with Paget’s disease and in hyperparathyroidism
What is smudged trabecular characeristic of?
When is coarsening of trabeculae seen?
seen in patients with chronic renal failure and osteoporosis
Accentuation of these trabeculae do not signify strength rather, loss of surrounding trabeculae cause remaining trabeculae to appear prominent
Lacy, delicate trabeculae:
secondary to thalassemia (Cooley’s anemia)
When is sclerosis seen?
normal local increases in bone density seen in areas subjected to increased physical stress, such as weight-bearing areas of joints
Localized sclerosis is a sign of what?
repair- extra bone deposited to fortify bony architecture to withstand forces of weight-bearing
When is excessive sclerosis normal?
site of healing fracture as callus is formed and new bone remodeled
When is reactive sclerosis seen?
when body acts to surround and contain a diseased area, such as a tumor or infection
Why is articular cartilage of joints and cartilaginous IVDs of spine not well demonstrated?
Cartilage space analysis includes evaluation of items on following lists
1. Joint Space Width
2. Subchondral Bone
3. Epiphyseal Plates
What does well preserved joint space imply?
cartilage or disk of normal thickness
What does decreased joint space imply?
cartilage or disk thinned down as result of degenerative processes
What is subchondral bone assessed for?
density changes or irregularities
What is looked for in subchondral bone?
What is looked for in epiphseal plates?
What is soft tissue of muscles evaluated for?
gross muscle wasting