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Flashcards in Quiz 1 Deck (77)
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1

What does alignment include?

General Skeletal Architecture
General Contour of Bone
Alignment of Bones Relative to Adjacent Bones

2

What is aberrant size of bones?

Gross enlargement of bone seen in conditions such as gigantism, acromegaly, or Paget’s disease
Grossly undersized bone may be related to congenital, metabolic, or endocrine abnormalities

3

What does general skeletal architecture include?

-aberrant size of bones
-supernumerary bones
-congential anomalies
-absence of any bones
-development deformities

4

What can a cervical rib cause?

transverse process of C7 because elongated: can cause neurological or vascular issues

5

What is included with general contour of bone?

-internal or external irregularities
-cortical outline of each bone
- any bony outgrowth of spurs at joint margin
- breaks in continuity of cortex, signifying fracture
-past surgical site marking

6

The cortical outline of bone should be:

smooth and continuous

7

Bony outgrowth of spurs at joint margins may be indicative of:

degenerative joint changes or may result from tension at areas of tissue attachment

8

What can sharp angles in the cortex be a sign of?

impaction fracture

9

What is included in alignment of bones relative to adjacent bones

fracture
dislocation
subluxation

10

What is evaluated with bone density?

general bone density
textural abnormalities
local density changes

11

Healthy cortex shows up with ____ density than cancellous bone and appears as ____ mrgin along bone shafts

greater, white

12

When is trabeculae altered?

when mineralization of bone is altered

13

How is image of trabeculae described?

thin, delicate, coarsened, smudged or fluffy

14

What is fluffly trabecular?

represent random proliferation of both osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity, as seen in skull of patient with Paget’s disease and in hyperparathyroidism

15

What is smudged trabecular characeristic of?

osteomalacia

16

When is coarsening of trabeculae seen?

seen in patients with chronic renal failure and osteoporosis
Accentuation of these trabeculae do not signify strength rather, loss of surrounding trabeculae cause remaining trabeculae to appear prominent

17

Lacy, delicate trabeculae:

secondary to thalassemia (Cooley’s anemia)

18

When is sclerosis seen?

normal local increases in bone density seen in areas subjected to increased physical stress, such as weight-bearing areas of joints

19

Localized sclerosis is a sign of what?

repair- extra bone deposited to fortify bony architecture to withstand forces of weight-bearing

20

When is excessive sclerosis normal?

site of healing fracture as callus is formed and new bone remodeled

21

When is reactive sclerosis seen?

when body acts to surround and contain a diseased area, such as a tumor or infection

22

Why is articular cartilage of joints and cartilaginous IVDs of spine not well demonstrated?

water-like density

23

Cartilage space analysis includes evaluation of items on following lists

1. Joint Space Width
2. Subchondral Bone
3. Epiphyseal Plates

24

What does well preserved joint space imply?

cartilage or disk of normal thickness

25

What does decreased joint space imply?

cartilage or disk thinned down as result of degenerative processes

26

What is subchondral bone assessed for?

density changes or irregularities

27

What is looked for in subchondral bone?

-increased sclerosis
-erosion

28

What is looked for in epiphseal plates?

position
size
smooth margin
disruptions

29

What is soft tissue of muscles evaluated for?

gross muscle wasting
gross swelling

30

What does gross muscle wasting suggest?

primary muscle disease, paralysis, inanition associated with severe illnesses, or disuse atrophy secondary to trauma