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Flashcards in Thoracic spine Deck (66)
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1

What do articulations of the thorax allow?

flexibility to accommodate actions of respiration and trunk mobility

2

What does the thorax provide stability for?

movements of neck and upper extremities

3

What is the goal of t-spine radiographic examination?

identify or exclude anatomic abnormalities or disease processes of spine

4

What is the sternum examined for?

assess fracture, inflammatory processes, or other pathology

5

What is the SC joint examined for?

assess joint separation or other pathology of joint

6

What are the routine projections for thoracic spine?

AP
lateral

7

Swimmer's lateral view of upper thoracic region:

Lateral view with patient’s arm placed overhead, to remove superimposition of shoulder from obscuring lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae

8

Oblique views:

- Demonstrate facet joints
- Not included in routine projections, b/c thoracic facet joints rarely involved in pathology

9

Thoracolumbar or other coned views:

- Coned view close-up view of designated area
- Cone refers to circular aperture attachment on x-ray tube which limits exposure field

10

How is radiographic evaluation of the ribcage done?

in sections- only those sections where history and symptoms define region are radiographed

11

How are rib sections radiographed?

AP or PA
Oblique

12

AP or PA of ribs:

projection for posterior or anterior ribs

13

Oblique view of ribs:

projections for axillary ribs

14

Why is a PA chest film often included in trauma?

to rule out possible pneumothorax or hemothorax

15

What does the AP view of the thorax view demonstrate?

thoracic vertebral bodies
IVD spaces
Alignment of pedicles
Spinous processes
Transverse processes
Articular processes
Costovertebral joints and posterior ribs

16

What is the interpedicular distance?

width b/w opposing paired pedicles
normally 20mm in t-spine

17

Spinous process interval:

Intervals b/w each spinous process from vertebra above vertebra below compared

18

What can an increase in interval distance at one level indicate?

torn posterior ligament complex

19

What does the lateral thoracic spine view demonstrate?

thoacic vertebral bodies
IVD spaces
intervertebral foramina

20

What does the anterior vertebral body line represent?

connected anterior borders of vertebral bodies forms smooth, continuous curve

21

What does the posterior vertebral body line represent?

connected posterior borders of vertebral bodies, forms continuous curve parallel to ALL

22

What does the spinolaminar line represent?

junctions of laminae at spinous processes forms continuous curve parallel to ALL and PLL

23

Why is t-spine the most commonly injured?

b/c of flexion forces

24

Where are the most commonly injured sites?

transitional vertebrae
C to T
T to L

25

Why are the transitional sites predisposed to injury?

b/c they are junctions b/w relatively immobile thoracic spine and more flexible cervical/lumbar spines

26

Where is incidence of acute injury highest?

in T/L vertebrae
12th thoracic and 1st lumbar

27

What injury is most common in T/L vertebrae?

compression fractures and fracture-dislocations

28

Neurological injury complicate what percentage of fractures at T/L level?

15-20%

29

MRI is the primary modality to evaluate what?

degree of neural compromise, cord edema, cord contusion, epidural hematoma, nerve root involvement, or ligamentous disruption

30

What is the most common spinal injury detectable on radiographs in all age groups?

anterior compression fractures