Flashcards in Quiz 1 Deck (37):
How is child development divided into domains?
three domains: physical, cognitive, and emotional/social
We organize child development theories based on how they take a stand on what three basic issues?
1) Is the course of development continuous or discontinuous? 2) Does one course of development characterize all children, or are there many possible courses? 3) What are the roles of genetic and environmental factors—nature and nurture—in development?
What is continuous development?
a process of gradually adding more of the same types of skills that were there to begin with
What is discontinuous development?
a process in which new ways of under- standing and responding to the world emerge at specific times
What do stage theorists assume?
that people everywhere follow the same sequence of development
What are "contexts" of child development?
unique combinations of personal and environmental circumstances that can result in different paths of change
What ideas are central to John Locke's philosophy of child development?
continuous development, nurture as main source of development, and high plasticity at later ages; children are a blank slate (tabula rasa)
How does Rousseau describe children?
as "noble savages," naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong and an innate plan for orderly, healthy growth
What is maturation as it is described in the book?
a genetically determined, naturally unfolding course of growth
What ideas are central to Jean-Jacques Rousseau's philosophy of child development?
discontinuous development, stage wise process, nature as main source of development
What is developmental science?
Study of constancy and change throughout the lifespan
What are the domains of developmental science?
1. Physical 2. Emotional and Social 3. Cognitive
What is resilience?
The ability to adapt effectively to threats to development
What are the stages of development?
Infancy and Toddlerhood - Birth to 2 years
Early Childhood - 2 to 6 years
Middle Childhood - 6 to 11 years
Adolescence - 11 to 18 years
Emerging Adulthood - 18 to 25 years
How did John Locke view development?
child as “tabula rasa” • Experience shapes the child • Praise, not punishment is most helpful; CONTINUOUS
How did Rousseau view development?
children “noble savages” • Natural morality
• Stages of development; DISCONTINUOUS
Who developed psychosexual theory?
What is the function of the Id?
Biological needs and desires; Present at birth
What is the Ego?
Rational though; Develops in infancy
What is the superego?
Conscience; Present in preschool years
What is the oral stage identified by Freud?
Birth-1 year; Pleasure through oral stimulation
What is the anal stage identified by Freud?
Pleasure centers on bowel/bladder control
What is the phallic stage identified by Freud?
3-6 years; Pleasure in genital stimulation; battle Oedipus & Electra complexes
What is the latency stage identified by Freud?
6-11 years; Sexual instinct calmed
What is the general stage identified by Freud?
Adolescence- adulthood; Sexual instinct matures
Who developed psychosocial theory?
What are the stages called and the ages associated with them of psychosocial theory?
Trust vs. Mistrust • Birth – 1 year
Autonomy/ Shame, Doubt • 1 – 3 years
Initiative vs. Guilt • 3 – 6 years
Industry vs. Inferiority • 6 – 11 years
Identity vs. Confusion • Adolescence
Intimacy vs. Isolation • Young adult
Generativity/ Stagnation • Middle adult
Integrity vs. Despair • Old age
What is behaviorism?
Challenged psychoanalytic theories
Focus on directly observable events; Stimulus/response
What is social learning theory and who developed it?
Built on behaviorism, Emphasized modeling
◦ Motivation ◦ Introduces role of cognition ◦ Self-efficacy
developed by Albert Bandura
Who developed cognitive development theory and what is its main premise?
Jean Piaget; Reinforcers not necessary,
Children construct knowledge through interactions with their environment
What are Piaget's stages of development?
Sensorimotor -- Birth–2 years
Pre operational -- 2–7 years
Concrete Operational -- 7–11 years
Formal Operational -- 11 years and older
What are information processing theories?
Brain as computer
◦ Input = sensory information
◦ Output = behavioral response
Children active in development
What is developmental cognitive neuroscience?
Incorporates psychology, biology, neuroscience, & medicine to study the relationship between changes in the brain, cognitive processing, & behavior patterns
What is ethology and who developed it?
the study of the adaptive value of behavior & its evolutionary history; Conrad Lorenz
What is sociocultural theory and who developed it?
Transmission of culture between generations; Importance of social interaction
Cognitive development is socially mediated; Lev Vygotsky developed it
What is ecological systems theory and who developed it?
holds that development occurs within a complex, ever-changing environment; Urie Bronfenbrenner