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Flashcards in Quiz 1 Deck (37):
1

How is child development divided into domains?

three domains: physical, cognitive, and emotional/social

2

We organize child development theories based on how they take a stand on what three basic issues?

1) Is the course of development continuous or discontinuous? 2) Does one course of development characterize all children, or are there many possible courses? 3) What are the roles of genetic and environmental factors—nature and nurture—in development?

3

What is continuous development?

a process of gradually adding more of the same types of skills that were there to begin with

4

What is discontinuous development?

a process in which new ways of under- standing and responding to the world emerge at specific times

5

What do stage theorists assume?

that people everywhere follow the same sequence of development

6

What are "contexts" of child development?

unique combinations of personal and environmental circumstances that can result in different paths of change

7

What ideas are central to John Locke's philosophy of child development?

continuous development, nurture as main source of development, and high plasticity at later ages; children are a blank slate (tabula rasa)

8

How does Rousseau describe children?

as "noble savages," naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong and an innate plan for orderly, healthy growth

9

What is maturation as it is described in the book?

a genetically determined, naturally unfolding course of growth

10

What ideas are central to Jean-Jacques Rousseau's philosophy of child development?

discontinuous development, stage wise process, nature as main source of development

11

What is developmental science?

Study of constancy and change throughout the lifespan

12

What are the domains of developmental science?

1. Physical 2. Emotional and Social 3. Cognitive

13

What is resilience?

The ability to adapt effectively to threats to development

14

What are the stages of development?

Infancy and Toddlerhood - Birth to 2 years
Early Childhood - 2 to 6 years
Middle Childhood - 6 to 11 years
Adolescence - 11 to 18 years
Emerging Adulthood - 18 to 25 years

15

How did John Locke view development?

child as “tabula rasa” • Experience shapes the child • Praise, not punishment is most helpful; CONTINUOUS

16

How did Rousseau view development?

Jean-Jacques Rousseau:
children “noble savages” • Natural morality
• Stages of development; DISCONTINUOUS

17

Who developed psychosexual theory?

Sigmund Freud

18

What is the function of the Id?

Biological needs and desires; Present at birth

19

What is the Ego?

Rational though; Develops in infancy

20

What is the superego?

Conscience; Present in preschool years

21

What is the oral stage identified by Freud?

Birth-1 year; Pleasure through oral stimulation

22

What is the anal stage identified by Freud?

1-3 years
Pleasure centers on bowel/bladder control

23

What is the phallic stage identified by Freud?

3-6 years; Pleasure in genital stimulation; battle Oedipus & Electra complexes

24

What is the latency stage identified by Freud?

6-11 years; Sexual instinct calmed

25

What is the general stage identified by Freud?

Adolescence- adulthood; Sexual instinct matures

26

Who developed psychosocial theory?

Erik Erikson

27

What are the stages called and the ages associated with them of psychosocial theory?

Trust vs. Mistrust • Birth – 1 year
Autonomy/ Shame, Doubt • 1 – 3 years
Initiative vs. Guilt • 3 – 6 years
Industry vs. Inferiority • 6 – 11 years
Identity vs. Confusion • Adolescence
Intimacy vs. Isolation • Young adult
Generativity/ Stagnation • Middle adult
Integrity vs. Despair • Old age

28

What is behaviorism?

Challenged psychoanalytic theories
Focus on directly observable events; Stimulus/response

29

What is social learning theory and who developed it?

Built on behaviorism, Emphasized modeling
◦ Motivation ◦ Introduces role of cognition ◦ Self-efficacy
Behavior modification;
developed by Albert Bandura

30

Who developed cognitive development theory and what is its main premise?

Jean Piaget; Reinforcers not necessary,
Children construct knowledge through interactions with their environment

31

What are Piaget's stages of development?

Sensorimotor -- Birth–2 years
Pre operational -- 2–7 years
Concrete Operational -- 7–11 years
Formal Operational -- 11 years and older

32

What are information processing theories?

Brain as computer
◦ Input = sensory information
◦ Output = behavioral response
No stages
Children active in development

33

What is developmental cognitive neuroscience?

Incorporates psychology, biology, neuroscience, & medicine to study the relationship between changes in the brain, cognitive processing, & behavior patterns

34

What is ethology and who developed it?

the study of the adaptive value of behavior & its evolutionary history; Conrad Lorenz

35

What is sociocultural theory and who developed it?

Transmission of culture between generations; Importance of social interaction
Cognitive development is socially mediated; Lev Vygotsky developed it

36

What is ecological systems theory and who developed it?

holds that development occurs within a complex, ever-changing environment; Urie Bronfenbrenner

37

What are the two types of interview?

clinical and structured