Flashcards in Quiz 2 Deck (65):
What is ethnography?
Participant observation of a culture or distinct social group. By making extensive field notes, the researcher tries to capture the culture’s unique values and social processes
What are structured observations?
the investigator sets up a laboratory situation that evokes the behavior of interest so that every participant has an equal opportunity to display the response
What happens in event sampling?
the observer records all instances of a particular behavior during a specified time period
How do you counteract the effects of observer bias?
hire a trained investigator to carry out a blind observation
What is observer influence?
the effects of the observer on the behavior studied
What is time sampling?
In this procedure, the researcher records whether certain behaviors occur during a sample of short intervals
What do neurobiological methods in psychological research do?
measure the relationship between nervous system processes and behavior; help identify the perceptions, thoughts and emotions of infants and young children who cannot report them themselves
What is an electroencephalogram (EEG)?
electrodes embedded in a head cap record electrical activity in the brain’s outer layers—the cerebral cortex
What are event-related potentials (ERPs)?
Using the EEG, the frequency and amplitude of brain waves in response to particular stimuli (such as a picture, music, or speech) are recorded in multiple areas of the cerebral cortex. Enables identification of general regions of stimulus-induced activity
What is an fMRI?
a scanner magnetically detects increased blood flow and oxygen metabolism in precise areas of the brain as the individual processes particular stimuli
What is near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)?
infrared (invisible) light is beamed at the brain; its absorption by areas of the cerebral cortex varies with changes in blood flow and oxygen metabolism as the individual processes particular stimuli. The result is a computerized moving picture of active areas in the cerebral cortex
What brain scanning techniques are safe for all ages?
EEG and NIRS, not fMRI
What are the main reasons for conducting a case study?
it is well-suited to studying the development of certain types of individuals who are few in number but vary widely in characteristics; you can obtain a very complete picture of the individual's psychological functioning and the experiences behind it
What is reliability?
the consistency, or repeatability, of measures of behavior
What is inter-rater reliability and what is it used for?
observers are asked to evaluate the same behaviors, and agreement between them; it is used in observational research
What is test-retest reliability and what is it used for?
comparing children’s responses to the same measures on separate occasions to confirm the date; it is used for self-report and neurobiological data
What is validity?
how well a research method accurately measures characteristics that the researcher set out to measure.
What is internal validity?
the degree to which conditions internal to the design of the study permit an accurate test of the researcher’s hypothesis or question
What is external validity?
the degree to which their findings generalize to settings and participants outside the original study
What happens in correlational design?
researchers gather information on individuals, generally in natural life circumstances, and make no effort to alter their experiences. Then they look at relationships between participants’ characteristics and their behavior or development
What threatens internal validity?
Can a measure be reliable but not valid?
Can a measure be valid but not reliable?
What is a correlation coefficient?
a number that describes how two measures, or variables, are associated with each other
How do researchers reduce the effect of confounding variables in an experiment?
random assignment and matching
What is matching?
participants are measured ahead of time on the factor in ques- tion—in our example, exposure to parental conflict. Then children high and low on that factor are assigned in equal numbers to each treatment condition
What are natural or quasi-experiments?
Treatments that already exist, such as different family environments, child-care centers, or schools, are compared. These studies differ from correlational research only in that groups of participants are carefully chosen to ensure that their characteristics are as much alike as possible
What is a longitudinal design?
participants are studied repeatedly at different ages, and changes are noted as they get older
What is selective attrition, and in what experimental design is it most often a problem?
Participants may move away or drop out for other reasons, and those who continue are likely to differ in important ways from those who drop out; longitudinal design
What are practice effects?
Their performance of participants may improve as a result of "test-wise" effects—better test-taking skills and increased familiarity with the test—not because of factors commonly associated with development
What are some major problems found in many longitudinal studies?
biased sampling, selective attrition, practice effects, and cohort effects
What are cohort effects?
Longitudinal stud- ies examine the development of cohorts— children developing in the same time period who are influenced by particular cultural and historical conditions. Results based on one cohort may not apply to children developing at other times
What are the advantages of cross-sectional design?
it is efficient, can examine trends across different age groups, and there is no selective attrition or practice effects
What are the disadvantages of cross-sectional design?
cannot examine individual's trends; cohort effects
What is a sequential design?
researchers conduct several cross-sectional or longitudinal inves- tigations (called sequences). The sequences might study participants over the same ages but in different years, or they might study participants over different ages but during the same years
What are the advantages of sequential design?
Longitudinal & cross- sectional comparisons; Reveals cohort effects; Efficient tracking of age- related changes
What are disadvantages of sequential design?
some of the same as longitudinal and cross-sectional, but design helps identify difficulties
What is microgenetic design?
an adaptation of the longitudinal approach, pre- sents children with a novel task and follows their mastery over a series of closely spaced sessions. Within this “microcosm” of development, researchers observe how change occurs
What is microgenetic design used for?
studying cognitive development and to trace infants' mastery of motor skills
What are the advantages of mirogenetic design?
researchers can see how change occurs; can conduct an intense study of participants’ moment-by-moment behavior
What are the disadvantages of mirogenetic design?
Time required difficult to anticipate; practice effects
What are the children's research rights?
Protection from harm; Informed consent; Privacy;
Knowledge of results; Beneficial treatments
At what age must researchers also receive informed consent from a child in a study and not just the parents?
What is Phenylketonuria (PKU)?
Inability to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine, contained in many proteins, causes severe central nervous system damage in the first year of life
Is PKU dominant or recessive?
What is the treatment for PKU?
Placing the child on a special diet results in average intelligence and normal lifespan. Subtle deficits in memory, planning, decision making, and problem solving are often present
What happens in Huntington's disease?
Central nervous system degeneration leads to muscular coordination difficulties, mental deterioration, and personality changes. Symptoms usually do not appear until age 35 or later
Is Huntington's disease dominant or recessive?
What is the treatment for Huntington's disease?
None. Death occurs 10 to 20 years after symptom onset
What is sickle cell anemia?
Abnormal sickling of red blood cells causes oxygen deprivation, pain, swelling, and tissue damage. Anemia and susceptibility to infections, especially pneumonia, occur
What is the treatment for sickle cell anemia?
Blood transfusions, painkillers, prompt treatment of infection. No known cure; 50 percent die by age 55
Is sickle cell anemia dominant or recessive?
recessive with incomplete dominance (heterozygous individual affected at high altitudes)
What is Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy?
Degenerative muscle disease. Abnormal gait, loss of ability to walk between 7 and 13 years of age
What kind of inheritance pattern is Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy?
What is the chorion?
Forms after 2 weeks; Protective membrane that surrounds the amnion
What is the ectoderm?
becomes nervous system & skin; Neural tube
What is the mesoderm?
muscles, skeleton, circulatory system
What is the endoderm?
digestive system, lungs, urinary tract, glands
What is the vernix?
protects skin from chapping in amniotic fluid
What is Lanugo?
white, downy hair covering body
What is the neural plate?
Formed from ectoderm; Home of neural progenitor cells
What is the ventricular zone?
Walls of neural tube; Migrate to become gray matter of corte
How would you describe migration?
when neurons Leave ventricular zone early they Become deep layers of cortex;
when they Leave ventricular zone late they Become more superficial layers of cortex (travel further)
What is synaptogenesis?
Process where neurons form synapses with other neurons; Results in trillions of connections