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Flashcards in Quiz 1 Deck (33):
1

What is the minimal diagnosis series for the cervical spine?

AP
APOM
Lateral

2

What is the minimal diagnostic series for the chest?

PA

Left Lateral

Why? So that structures are closer to the cassette

3

What should sinuses look like?

Lucent — dark colored, filled with air

4

What is the normal value for the prevertebral soft tissue diameter at level C6?

22mm

Remember rule of 2s and 6s:

  • At C2 < 6mm
  • At C6 < 22mm

5

What is the normal value for the prevertebral soft tissue diameter at level C2?

6mm

Remember rule of 2s and 6s:

  • At C2 < 6mm
  • At C6 < 22mm

6

What is the retropharyngeal vertebral levels?

Down to C2

7

What is the retrolaryngeal vertebral levels?

C3 to C5

8

What is the retrotracheal vertebral levels?

C6 and below

9

Which is a normal site of physiological calcification? (Choose all that apply.)

A. Stylohyoid ligament
B. Thyroid gland
C. Tracheal rings
D. Cricoid cartilage
E. Costal cartilage
F. Michael ligament
G. Pineal gland

Select all EXCEPT B — if the thyroid gland is calcified, it would be pathological.

From our notes: on the lateral view calcification is usually seen most prominently at the anterior and posterior margins of the thyroid and cricoid cartilages and anterior margins of tracheal rings. Arytenoid cartilage calcification often appears as very dense spots of calcification at the posterior, superior aspect of cricoid cartilage.

10

Calcification of which cartilages is normal and has NO clinical significance?

Thyroid
Cricoid
Arytenoid
Tracheal rings

(Epiglottis cartilage does not calcify.)

11

Overlying rib 1 cartilage calcification of this structure may simulate pathology:

Lung apices

12

On the PA chest view, how do we know the patient was exposed on full inspiration?

A. Count ribs
B. Level of hemidiaphragms
C. Widened rib inter-space
D. Pulmonary bronchovasculature

A. Count ribs

On PA, want to see posterior Rib 10 above the hemidiaphragm

13

What are some things to check for if questioning the diagnostic quality of a chest film?

1. Adequate inspiration (mid right hemidiaphragm at rib 10 posterior)

2. Entire lung field visualized (apex, lateral, CP angels)

3. Adequate film density/ contrast (IVD spaces faintly visible through heart shadow)

4. Proper positioning (No rotation — check proximal clavicles)

14

Which hemidiaphragm is normally higher?

Right (though if they are equal, that is OK)

15

Why is the right hemidiaphragm higher (or equal) than the left?

Because the right lobe of the liver (I THINK — I couldn’t hear the student who answered in the Panopto)

16

What 5 things make up the hilar region?

1. Mainstem bronchi (L&R)
2. Pulmonary Arteries (L&R)
3. Pulmonary Veins (L&R)
4. Pulmonary Lymph Nodes
5. Nerves

17

Which hilum is higher?

Left hilum slightly higher

18

Why is the left hilum slightly higher?

Left goes over the bronchus while right hilum goes anterior to the bronchus.

19

The tracheal air shadow should fall midline, but may have a slight deviation to the [LEFT / RIGHT].

Right

20

Why does the trachea deviate to the right?

Aortic arch

21

What is the correct cardiothoracic ratio?

A. Width of heart less than or equal to 3/4 of thoracic cavity
B. Width of heart equal to 3/4 of thoracic cavity
C. Width of heart equal to 1/2 of thoracic cavity
D. Width of heart less than or equal to 1/2 of thoracic cavity

A image thumb
22

Which pulmonary vasculature is larger?

A. Upper lung field
B. Lower lung field

Lower lung fields

23

Why are the pulmonary vasculature more prominent to lower lung fields?

Vessels are more prominant, larger caliber to lower than to upper lung field.

24

Pulmonary vasculature vessels branching and tapering bilaterally.

Central 1/3 vessels are less than ____ in diameter

1 cm (C in the photo)

Note: this is the only cm measurement for these vessels 

A image thumb
25

Pulmonary vasculature vessels branching and tapering bilaterally.

Middle 1/3 vessels are less than ____ in diameter

7-8 mm (M in photo)

A image thumb
26

Pulmonary vasculature vessels branching and tapering bilaterally.

Peripheral 1/3 vessels are less than ____ in diameter

5 mm (P in photo)

A image thumb
27

Which fissures are present in the right lung?

A. Minor
B. Oblique
C. Horizontal
D. Major

B and C

28

Which fissures are present in the left lung?

A. Minor
B. Oblique
C. Horizontal
D. Major

B

29

What views can the horizontal fissure be seen?

A. PA only
B. Lateral only
C. PA and Lateral

C.

On PA, extends medial to lateral at level of anterior 4th rib. On Lateral (see photo), extends from oblique fissure anterior to chest wall.

A image thumb
30

The pleural fissures are formed by the ____ pleural separating 2 adjacent lobes:

A. Visceral
B. Parietal

A.

Because visceral pleura covers lungs, where parietal is covering the walls of the chest.

31

The accessory fissures are formed by the ______ pleural separating the SAME lobe?

A. Visceral
B. Parietal

Both A and B

32

What is the most common accessory fissure?

A. Left horizontal fissure
B. Inferior accessory
C. Superior accessory
D. Azygous

D

Note: accessory fissures include azygous, superior, inferior

A image thumb
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