Quiz 1: Chapter '2'- The Evolution of Mgmt Thinking Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 1: Chapter '2'- The Evolution of Mgmt Thinking Deck (52):
1

DefineJugaad

Refers to creating something of benefit from limited resources

2

Development in Management lies in....

The broad, long-term view needed for management success

3

Define Social Forces

Those aspects of a culture that guide and influence relationships among people

4

Define a Social Contract

The unwritten, common rules and perceptions about relationships among people between employees and management

5

Define Political Forces

The influence of political and legal institutions on people and organizations- an increased role of government

6

Define Economic Forces

Pertain to the availability, production, and distribution of resources in a society

7

The Classical Perspective:

The early study of management, includes Scientific Management, Bureaucratic Organizations, & Administrative Principles- the dawn of the "salaried manager"

8

Define Scientific Management

Emphasizes scientifically determined jobs and management practices as the way to improve efficiency and labor productivity, developed by Frederick Taylor

9

Frederick Taylor

The father of Scientific Management, developed a plan correcting movement, improving tools, and sequence in which tasks were completed to improve productivity

10

Henry Gantt

An associate of Taylor's, developed the Gnatt Chart, a bar graph that measures planned and completed work along each stage of production by time elapsed

11

Define Time and Motion Study

Developed by Frank & Lillian Gilbreth, stressed "one best way to do things" -he drastically reduced time frames for most technical things including surgery

12

Define Computerized Labor

A computerized system that allows Stores to be staffed more efficiently, employees are routinely monitored by computer and are expected to meet strict stnadards

13

Define Bureaucratic Organizations

Developed in Europe by Max Weber, designed to manage organizations on an impersonal & rational basis, organizational continuity is based on structure rather than a particular leader, strict rules/procuders

14

Name the Big Six In Bureaucracy

1) Division of Labor,
2) Positions Organized by Authority,
3) Managers follow strict guidelines that will ensure results
4) Management is separate from ownership
5) Administrative acts/decisions are recorded in writing
6) Personal is selected and promoted based on technical qualifications- Favoritism is forbidden

15

Define Administrative Principles

Focuses on the total organization, developed by Henri Fayol, included five basic functions to management

16

List the Five Basic Functions of Management

1) Planning
2) Organizing
3) Commanding
4) Coordinating
5) Controlling

17

Define the Humanistic Perspective

Emphasized the importance of understanding human behaviors, needs, and attitudes in the workplace, promoted social interactions and group processes

18

Mary Parker Follett

Approached Leadership as stressing the importance of people rather than the engineering techniques

19

Define Empowerment

Developed by Follett, utilizes rather than controlling employees, allows employees to act depending on the authority of the situation

20

Define Informal Organization

Developed by Barnard, occurs in all forms of organizations, includes cliques, informal networks, and social groupings, can be beneficial to organizations if manager properly,

21

Define Acceptance Theory of Authority

States that people have free will and can choose whether to follow management orders or not

22

Define Human Relations Movement

Theory states that effective control comes from within the individual worker rather than from strict authoritarian control

23

Define the Hawthorne Studies

Results state that when people know they are being observed, they act differently than if they were not under observation

24

Define Human Relations

States that employees perform better when managers treated them in a positive manner

25

Define the Human Resource Perspective

View shifted to consider the daily tasks that people perform

26

Abraham Maslow

Developed the hierarchy of needs

27

Douglas McGregor

Developed the X/Y Theory

28

Define the X/Y Theory

X: claims that workers need higher levels of supervision and attention, only utilizes executives/managers decision making/ideas
Y: claims that workers need more freedom to complete their tasks successfully, stresses trusting employees, uses employee imagination and intellect

29

Define Behavioral Sciences Approach

Uses Scientific methods and draws from sociology, psychology, anthropology, economics, and other disciplines to develop theories about human behavior and interaction in an organizational setting

30

Define Organization Development

Stated as the ability to cope with change, improve internal relationships, and increase problem-solving capabilites

31

Define Management Science/ Quantitative Perspective

An application of mathematics, statistics, and other quantitative techniques to management decision making and problem solving

32

Define Operations Research

Consists of mathematical model building and other applications of quantitative techniques to managerial problems

33

Define Operations Management

Field of management that specializes in the physical production of goods or services,

34

Define Information Technology (IT)

Information systems designed to provide relevant information to managers in a timely and cost-efficient manner

35

Define Quants

Refers to financial managers and others who base their decisions on complex quantitative analysis under the assumption that technology can accurately predict how the market works

36

But, if quantitative techniques are relied too heavily upon...

It can have negative results for managers

37

Define System Thinking

The ability to see both the distinct elements of a system or situation and the complex and changing interaction among those elements

38

Define a System

A set of interrelated parts that function as a whole to achieve a common purpose

39

Define a Subsystem

Parts of a system such as an organization that depend on one another

40

Define Synergy

The whole is greater than the sum of its parts

41

System thinking enables manages to...

Find patterns of movement and focus on the rhythm, flow, direction, shape, and networks of relationships that accomplish the task

42

System Causality

Page, '53' Exhibit 2.5

43

Define Contingency View

Views each situation as unique, implying that principles are not universal -manager's need to identify key contingencies in an organization's structure for success

44

Total Quality Management (TQM)

Focuses on managing the total organization to deliver better quality to customers- developed by Deming

45

Kaizen

The four significant elements: employee involvement, focus on the customer, bench marking, and continuous improvement

46

Define Employee Involvement

Achieving better quality requires company wide participation in quality control

47

Define Focused on the Customer

Companies find out what customers want and try to meet their needs

48

Define Benchmarking

When companies find out how others do something better than they do and try to improve their process

49

Define Continuous Improvement

The implementation of small, incremental improvements in all areas of the organization

50

Define Social Media Programs

Include company online community pages, social media sites to inform society of their organization

51

Define Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

A system that uses the latest information technology to keep in close touch with customers and to collect and manage large amounts of customer data- helps sales forecasts

52

Define Supply Chain Management

Refers to managing the sequence of suppliers and purchasers, covering all stages of processing from obtaining raw materials to distributing finished goods to consumers