Flashcards in Quiz 2 Deck (45)
What is self-regulation?
Process people use to initiate, alter, and control their behavior in the pursuit of goals.
The failure to recognize the importance of situational influences on behavior, and the tendency to overemphasize the importance of dispositions of traits on behavior.
Fundamental attribution error
The idea that people should assign reduced weight to a particular cause of behavior if other plausible causes might have produced it.
The idea that people should assign greater weight to a particular cause of behavior if other causes to the events around them effects that people's casual assessments have.
What is the self-schema?
Cognitive structures, derived from past experience, that represent a person's beliefs and feelings about the self in particular domains.
What is self-verification?
A theory that holds that people strive for stable, subjectively accurate beliefs about the self because such beliefs give them a sense of confidence.
What is the self-serving bias?
The tendency to attribute failure and other bad events to external circumstances, but to attribute success and other good events to oneself.
What is attribution?
An umbrella term used to describe the set of theoretical accounts of how people assign causes to the events around them and the effects that people's casual assessments have.
Comparison of oneself to a lesser skilled individual.
Comparison of oneself to a better skilled individual to promote goal-seeking.
A model that maintains that people are motivated to view themselves in a favorable light, and they do so through two processes: reflection and social comparison.
Self-evaluation maintenance model
Thoughts of what might have, could have, or should have happened "if only" something had been done differently.
A ratcheting up of an emotional reaction to an event that is proportional to how easy it is to imagine the event not happening.
What is self-esteem? What are some ways it is measured?
One's evaluation of oneself. It can be measured as high or low, and also stable or unstable.
The hypothesis that people compare themselves to other people in order to obtain an accurate assessment of their own opinions, abilities, and internal states.
Social comparison processes/theory
An account of self-esteem that maintains that self-esteem is contingent on successes and failures in domains on which a person has based his or her self-worth.
Contingencies of self-worth account of self-esteem
Regulating behavior with respect to ought standards, entailing a focus on avoiding negative outcomes and avoidance-related behaviors.
Regulating behavior with respect to ideal self standards, entailing a focus on attaining positive outcomes and approach-related behaviors.
The finding that most people think they are above average on various trait and ability dimensions.
Better than average effect
Subset of self-knowledge that is brought to mind in a particular context.
The belief that people get what they deserve in life and deserve what they get.
Just world hypothesis
What does Roy Baumeister say about high self-esteem?
High self esteem may cause a person to perform violent acts because they take out their anger in others. They do not blame themselves.
What's the difference between having high self-esteem that is stable or unstable?
If it is stable, their overall perspective does not change too much. However, a person with unstable esteem will change their perspective drastically.
Name the three components in Higgins' theory of self-discrepancies.
Actual self: what someone is like
Ideal self: what they'd ideally like to be
Ought self: what they think they ought to be
Thinking about yourself; looking within. (Example: pantyhose, rainy/sunny day and life satisfaction)
When attitudes or feelings are ambiguous or weak.
Evaluation of self
Knowledge about self
People with high stability base their esteem on relatively constant ______ factors.