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Be familiar with the study by Snyder, Tanke, and Berscheid (1997).

Women over the phone. Attractive versus unattractive and effects on sociability.


Do people think that composite (average) faces are more attractive than individual faces?



Be familiar with Ainsworth's different attachment styles, and attachment styles in general.

Secure: loving, well looked after.
Insecure: dismissive, not well looked after.
Anxious: untrusting, confusing.


What would self-awareness theory predict would be some conditions where you would be more likely to pay attention to internal standards?

Being in front of a camera, seeing ourselves in a mirror, or wearing a name tag.


Is reproductive fitness though to be an important criterion in mate choice?



What are some features that signal health and reproductive fitness?

Youth, beauty


Be familiar with Caryl Rusbult's investment model of commitment and relationships.

A model of interpersonal relationship that maintains that three things make partners more committed to each other: rewards, few alternative partners, and investments in the relationship.


What is group polarization? Is this different from the risky shift?

The tendency for group decisions to be more extreme than those made by individuals. Whatever way individuals are leaning, group discussion times to make them going further in that direction. It is the opposite of risky shift (group more extreme than individuals).


What is the persuasive arguments' account of why group polarization occurs?

When people are predisposed to play it safe, in contrast, they can think of more and better arguments that favor caution. But any one person is unlikely to think of all the arguments in favor of one alternative or the other.


According to John Gottman, what 4 behaviors are particularly bad for relationships?

Criticism, defensiveness, stonewalling, and contempt


What does research on deindividuation say about when people will riot?

Face covered, dark, welcomed into group


Understand the importance of similarity in attraction.

Interactions with people who share our believes, values, and personal characteristics time to be rewarding and thus tend to increase our attraction toward them.


What are some things that can be done to reduce the likelihood of groupthink occurring?

Leader refrains from making his or her opinions or preferences known at the beginning, making sure the group is not cut off from outside input, new members providing fresh perspective, and incentive to name any and all weaknesses in the group's proposed plan of action.


What is the proximity effect in attraction?

Finding someone more attractive simply because you are around them often.


What is social facilitation? How does it differ from social loafing?

The positive or negative effect of the presence of others on performance. Social loafing is a subcategory of social facilitation (group making an individual less motivated).


What is the bogus stranger paradigm?

The more similar the "individual" whose answers related to those of the participants reading them, the more the participants liked that individual.


What's the difference between an exchange and a communal relationship?

Communal: individuals feel a special responsibility for one another and give and receive according to principle of need (long-term/love).
Exchange: individuals feel little responsibility toward each other, giving and receiving only by concern of equity and reciprocity (group project).


What does John Bowlby say about how attachment style is formed?

Our early attachments with our parents and other caregivers shape our relationships for the rest of our lives.


What does an evolutionary perspective say about why women are more selective than men in their choice of mates?

Males do not need investment in order to reproduce. Women need security to reproduce, and will do so with an individual that will take care of them and their children.


What are self-fulfilling prophecies? Can you see a way they might cause someone to like you?

Example: Proximity effect, mere exposure


What is the mere exposure effect?

Repeated exposure to a stimulus leads to greater liking of the stimulus.


What is power? How is it different from authority or status?

The ability to control our own outcomes and those of others; the freedom to act. Authority is institutionalized. Status is evaluation of importance.


How does having power affect how we interact with others?

According to the approach/inhibition theory, high-power individuals are inclined to go after their goals and make quick judgments, whereas low-power individuals are more likely to constrain their behavior and attend to others carefully.


Be familiar with the equity theory of relationships.

People are motivated to pursue fairness, or equity, in their relationships; rewards and costs are shared roughly equally among individuals.


When couples are happy, how do their attributions for each others' behavior vary for positive and negative behaviors?

They do not focus on negativity in their partner as much as unhappy couples. They make external arguments for their significant other's negative behavior, attitude, etc.


What is the spotlight effect?

People's conviction that other people are attending to them (appearance and behavior) more than they actually are.


Considering groupthink, what is self-censorship?

The tendency to withhold information or opinions in group discussions.


What are halo effects, and how are they relevant for attractive people?

The common belief (accurate or not) that attractive individuals possess a host of positive qualities beyond their physical appearance.


If the need to belong is universal, should this need be present in all cultures?