Quiz 2 - Breast, Thoracic Wall, Lungs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 2 - Breast, Thoracic Wall, Lungs Deck (55):
1

the breast lies within the ____

superficial fascia (subcutaneous tissue) between the skin and the deep fascia overlying the pectoralis major muscle

2

retromammary space

deep to the breast tissue, but superficial to the deep fascia; allows for some movement of the breast on the thoracic wall

3

four quadrants of breast

upper outer
upper inner
lower inner
lower outer

4

UOQ

upper outer quadrant
has axillary tail that extends superolaterally towards the axilla

5

areola

-surrounds the nipple
-contains multiple sebaceous glands which secrete lubricating and waterproofing sebum

6

accessory nipples

-can be found anywhere along "milk lines"
-can lactate
-appear as moles

7

mammary gland is made up of 15-20 ______

lobes, each of which has a separate lactiferous duct draining into the nipple

8

each lobe is comprised of _______

lobules, which contain glandular tissue at the ends of the ducts (the alveoli), which only become active during lactation

9

lobular tissue is supported by fibrous bands connected to the dermis called _____

suspensory ligaments

10

blood supply to the breast

-internal thoracic artery
-branches of the axillary artery
-intercostal arteries

11

lymphatic drainage of breast

-into axillary lymph nodes (mostly), but the inner quadrants also drain to the parasternal lymph nodes

12

medial end of clavicle

sternoclavicular joint

13

lateral end of clavicle

acromioclavicular joint

14

sternum

breast bone; ventral bone of the thoracic wall

15

jugular (suprasternal) notch

concave superior border of the manubrium

16

xiphoid process

the cartilaginous section at the lower end of the sternum; is not attached to any ribs

17

sternal angle (of Louis)

-between manubrium and body of sternum
-located subcutaneously
-consistently at the level of the articulation of the 2nd costal cartilage with the sternum
-must always start at this point to identify any particular rib or interspace

18

costal margins

lower edge of chest form by bottom edge of ribcage

19

coracoid process of scapula

arises anteriorly from near the top of the head and neck of the scapula, and projects anterolaterally

20

intercostal muscles

-between ribs
-3 layers (external, internal, innermost)

21

thoracentesis

-procedure used to remove abnormal collections of fluid or air from the pleural cavity

22

blood supply in the thorax

-thoracic aorta: descends on L side of thorax and gives rise to posterior intercostal arteries
-internal thoracic arteries (branches of the subclavian arteries): descend parallel to the sternum and give off anterior intercostal arteries. End by bifurcating into the superior epigastric and musculophrenic arteries

23

anterior and posterior intercostal arteries can develop _____

anastomotic connections, thus providing a collateral channel if either the aorta or internal thoracic artery becomes occluded

24

intercostal veins drain to ________

-internal thoracic vein anteriorly
-tributaries of the azygos vein posteriorly

25

superior thoracic aperture

-opening along the plane of the 1st rib
-superior boundary of the thoracic cavity

26

apex of each lung

extends superior to the superior thoracic aperture; can be damaged by neck injuries or stab wounds

27

diaphragm

inferior boundary of the thoracic cavity, which separates the thorax from the abdomen

28

three subdivisions of thoracic cavity

two pulmonary cavities and a mediastinum

29

mediastinum contains _____

heart, great vessels, trachea

30

visceral pleura

-covers lungs
-simple squamous epithelium

31

parietal pleura

-internal surface of thoracic cavity
-often named for whatever it's in contact with; e.g. pleura in contact with chest wall is costal pleura

32

pleural cavity/space

-between visceral and parietal pleura
-normally contains only a small amount of serous fluid

33

pleural reflection

-created wherever the parietal pleura reflects from one structures to another (e.g. from the chest wall onto the diaphragm)

34

pleural recesses

-occur where two parietal pleural surfaces are in contact with each other
-no intervening lung tissue

35

R lung divisions

-oblique and horizontal fissures
-3 lobes

36

L lung divisions

-oblique fissure only
-2 lobes

37

upper lobes

lie superior and anterior

38

lower lobes

lie inferior and posterior

39

middle lobes

lateral and anterior between oblique and horizontal fissues

40

positions of lung at midclavicular, midaxillary, and midscapular lines

ribs 6-8-10

41

positions of pleura at midclavicular, midaxillary, and midscapular lines

ribs 8-10-12

42

trachea divides into 2 ________

main (1*) bronchi, one for each lung, at the CARINA

43

1* bronchi divide into ________

lobar (2*) bronchi (2 on left 3 on right) that supply individual lobes

44

2* bronchi divide into ______

segmental (3*) bronchi for each pulmonary segment

45

intermediate bronchus

short segment of the right main bronchus prior to the branching of the middle and lower lobe bronchus

46

how do the right and left main bronchi differ?

right has a more vertical course and a larger diameter

47

trachea

C-shaped rings of cartilage; smooth muscle fills gap

48

pulmonary arteries

carry deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart into the lungs; their branches travel alongside the bronchi into each lung segment

49

pulmonary veins

returned oxygenated blood to heart; travel between adjacent lung segments receiving blood from both

50

bronchial arteries

supply the bronchial tree and lung with oxygenated blood

51

lymphatic drainage of the lung and visceral pleura is toward and thru the _______

hilum

52

what filters pulmonary lymph?

-bronchopulmonary nodes (clustered around the lobar and main bronchi at the hilum)
-tracheobronchial nodes (surround the carina)

53

muscles required for inspiration

-diaphragm --> contraction flattens and moves it inferiorly
-aided by contraction of intercostal muscles, which elevate the ribs laterally (bucket handle) and anteriorly (pump handle).

54

expiration

passive; everything relaxes and moves back into position

55

forced exhalation

-requires use of abdominal wall musculature