Quiz 2 - The Back Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 2 - The Back Deck (74):
1

2 basic parts of a vertebrae

the vertebral body and the vertebral arch

2

Vertebral foramen

Opening formed by the fusion of the vertebral body and vertebral arch

3

Other parts of the vertebrae that you should be familiar with:

1. Pedicle (between body and transverse process)

2. Transverse process (sticking out to the side)

3. Spinous process (sticking out of your back)

4. Lamina (between transverse process and spinous process)

5. Superior/inferior vertebral notches

6. Superior/inferior articular processes

4

Atlas

C1

5

Axis

C2

6

Typical cervical vertebrae

-bifid spinous process

-foramen in each transverse process (called transverse foramen)

-uncinate processes (bony margins that project from the lateral edges of the superior surface of the vertebral body)

 

7

What is unique about C7?

-does not conduct the paired vertebral arteries that are traveling towrds the head, like the other cervical vertebrae

-is called the "vertebra prominens" because it is a very prominent spinous process

8

Typical thoracic vertebrae

-Costal facets for articulation with ribs

-Long, sloping spinous processes

9

Typical lumbar vertebrae

-sturdy vertebral bodies

-short, blunt spinous processes

-the "typical" vertebrae that you think of; their large size reflects the fact that they support more weight

10

Anterior and posterior sacral foramina

serve the same purpose as the intervertebral foramen between vertebral bodies

11

Sacrum articulates superiorly with _____

L5

12

The sacrum articulates laterally with the _____

pelvic bones

13

The sacrum articulates inferiorly with the _____

coccyx

14

The vertebrae, sacrum, and coccux are stacked together to form the _____

Vertebral column

15

What houses the spinal cord?

The vertebral canal, which is superiorly continuous with the cranial cavity via the foramen magnum

16

Sacral canal

-the portion of the vertebral canal that extends into the sacrum

-ends inferiorly at the sacral hiatus

 

17

Extension of back

bending back

18

flexion of back

touching your toes

19

lateral flexion of back

tilting side to side

20

Joints of the back are held together by?

Ligaments and intervertebral discs

21

Joints between vertebral bodies?

Symphysis; in the case of the back this is the intervertebral disc

22

Joints between articular processes

Synovial facet (zygapophyseal) joints; these occur between the superior articular process of one vertebra and the inferior articular process of another vertebra

23

Two layers of the intervertebral disc

-anulus fibrosus (outer layer of fibrocartilage; remember fibrocartilage contains both type I and type II collagen)

-nucleus pulposus (inner gelatinous core)

24

Intervertebral foramina

-formed when a superior vertebral notch on one vertebrae meets an inferior vertebral notch on adjacent vertebrae

-provides access to the vertebral canal

25

Primary movement in the thoracic region

Rotation

26

Primary movement in the lumbar region

flexion and extension

27

Herniated (ruptured) disc

-Annulus fibrosus tears due to trauma or degenerative changes, and the nucleus pulposus protrudes through the torn area. 

-Typically, protrusion of nucleus pulposus occurs in a posterolateral direction, because the annulus is thinner in that area, and no support is provided by the longitudinal ligaments. 

-Prolapsed nucleus pulposus may compress spinal nerve roots causing back pain

-HERNIATED DISCS MOST COMMON IN LUMBAR REGION (L4/L5/S1)

28

Anterior longitudinal ligament

-continuous band found on anterior aspect of vertebral bodies

-important for preventing hyperextension of the vertebral column

29

Posterior longitudinal ligament

-continuous band found on the posterior aspect of vertebral bodies (anterior to the vertebral canal) 

-limits flexion of the vertebral column

-this is the one that's kind of in between the spinous processes and the vertebral body

30

Supraspinous ligament

-runs along the tips of spinous processes from C7-sacrum

-limits flexion of the column

 

31

Ligamentum nuchae

-takes place of the supraspinous ligament in the cervical region

-"the cranial continuation of the infraspinous and supraspinous ligaments"

-attached superiorly to the external occipital protuberance of the occipital bone; ends at C7

-helps support weight of the head; limits flexion of head and neck

32

The spaces between adjacent spinous processes are filled by the ______

Interspinous ligaments

 

Their ventral surface meets the ligamentum flavum and their dorsal margin blends into the supraspinous ligament. 

33

Ligamentum flavum

-named for its yellow color due to the high concentration of elastic fibers

-connects adjacent laminae

-forms part of the posterior wall of the vertebral canal (fills in gaps, especially in lumbar region)

34

Best place for epidural?

Region between L2 and S2 because spinal cord is not present and there are gaps between adjacent vertebrae that allow access with a needle

35

Vertebral column curves anteriorly in which plane?

The sagittal plane

36

Primary curvature of embryo

(Concave anteriorly) remains in the thoracic and sacral regions

37

Secondary curvatures (convex anteriorly)

begin to form before birth in the cervical and lumbar regions

38

When do the curvatures develop fully?

after the baby holds its head up and leads to stand

39

Kyphosis

Exaggerated thoracic curvature (hunchback). Most commonly due to osteporosis of the anterior parts of the vertebral bodies, or compression fractures

40

Lordosis

-exaggerated lumbar (secondary) curvature (sway-back)

-due to anterior rotation of the pelvis that can be caused by obesity or temporarily in pregnancy

41

Scoliosis

-lateral curvature of the spine in the CORONAL PLANE

-usually due to an imbalance of forces (asymmetry in muscle strength or in development of vertebrae)

 

42

Label the parts of the skull

Q image thumb

Should know occipital bone, superior/inferior nuchal lines, external occipital protuberance and crest, and mastoid process of temporal bone

 

Can't see on this pic: foramen magnum, occipital condyles

43

Posterior view of the scapular landmarks for the back

Q image thumb

Should know: superior/inferior angles, superior border, acromion, spine, medial/lateral borders

44

Extrinsic back muscles

-Innervated by the VENTRAL rami of spinal nerves (except for trapezius)

-include superifcial layer and intermediate layer

45

Intrinsic back muscles

-Innervated by the DORSAL rami of spinal nerves

-include deep layer

 

46

Superficial layer (extrinsic)

-contains muscles that move the upper extremity

-trapezius

-latissimus dorsi

-levator scapulae

-rhomboid major and minor

47

Trapezius O, I, N, Fx (extrinsic, superficial)

O: superior nuchal line, external occipital protuberance, ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes of C7 to T12

I: lateral 1/3 of clavicle, acromion, spine of scapula

N: accessory nerve (CN XI)

Fx: superior fibers elevate and laterally rotate scapula; middle fibers retract scapula; inferior fibers depress and laterally rotate scapula

48

Levator scauplae: O, I, N, Fx (extrinsic, superficial)

O: Transverse processes of C1 to C4

I: superior angle of the scapula

N: dorsal scapular nerve

Fx: elevates scapula

49

Rhomboid minor/major O, I, N, Fx (extrinsic, superficial)

O: spinous processes of lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae

I: medial border of scapula (minor is superior to the spine; major is inferior)

N: dorsal scapular nerve

Fx: retracts and medially rotates the scapula

50

Latissimus dorsi O, I, N, Fx (extrinsic, superficial)

O: spinous process T7-L5, sacrum, iliac crest

I: Intertubercular groove of humerus

N: thoracodorsal nerve

Fx: extends, adducts, and medially rotates the humerus

51

Intermediate layer (extrinsic)

-two thin muscles

-serratus posterior superior

-serratus posterior inferior

-thought to be respiratory muscles but are not clinically relevant

52

Deep layer (intrinsic)

-separated from the extrinsic muscles by the thoracolumbar fascia

-organized in layers

-splenius capitis

-splenius cervicis

-erector spinae

-semispinalis capitis

53

Splenius capitis & cervicis O, I, N, Fx

O: ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes of C7 and upper thoracic vertebrae

I, capitis: mastoid process and superior nuchal line

I, cervicis: transverse processes of upper cervical vertebrae

N: dorsal rami of spinal nerves

Fx: bilaterally - extend the head and neck; unilaterally - rotate the head to one side

54

Erector spinae O, I, N, Fx

O: sacrum, iliac crest, ribs, spinous and transverse processes of vertebrae

I: spinous and transverse processes of vertebrae, ribs, and skull 

N: dorsal rami of spinal nerves

Fx: bilaterally - extend the head trunks; unilaterally - bend the trunk laterally. Also important for controlling flexion against gravity.

 

**The erector spinae is the primary muscle that extends the vertebral column

55

Semispinalis capitis O, I, N, Fx

O: transverse processes of lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae

I: occipital bone near nuchal lines

N: dorsal rami of spinal nerves

Fx: bilaterally - extend the head and neck; unilaterally - rotate the head to one side

 

**Part of the transversospinal group, which consists of small postural muscles that stabilize the vertebral column and provide proprioceptive feedback

56

Skin of the back is innervated in a segmental fashion by...

the DORSAL rami of spinal nerves

57

What vessel supplies the skin and intrinsic muscles of the back?

Recurring branches from the descending aorta

58

Branches from the aorta associated with thoracic vertebrae

Posterior intercostal arteries

59

Branches from the aorta associated with lumbar vertebrae

Lumbar arteries

60

Transverse cervical artery

Supplies blood to trapezius! And other extrinsic muscles (?)

61

What differentiates to form a sclerotome, dermatome, and myotome?

Somites. The sclerotomes form vertebrae, ribs, and parts of the intervertebral discs. The dermatomes form dermis/hypodermis of back. The myotome forms skeletal muscles for back, body wall, and limbs

62

Sclerotome

-comprised of loosely organized mesenchymal cells from the core of the somite 

-these cells are mesenchyme cells or embryonic CT

-mesenchymal cells can differentiate into different cell types (fibroblasts, chondroblasts, or osteoblasts)

63

To where do the cells of the sclerotome migrate?

-around the neural tube and notochord

64

What do the sclerotome cells around the neural tube form?

The vertebral arch

65

What do the sclerotome cells around the notochord form?

The vertebral bodies

66

How does the sclerotome form ribs?

Ribs grow distally from the costal processes of thoracic vertebrae

67

The vertebrae are derived from the _____

Sclerotome

68

From where are the annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus derived?

Anuulus fibrosus = sclerotome

Nucleus pulposus = notochord

Vertebral body = sclerotome

69

Cells of the myotome differentiate into what?

Myoblasts, which give rise to skeletal muscle

70

Further development of the myotome produces what two regions?

-a dorsally located epaxial group (intrinstic back muscles, innervated by dorsal rami)

-a ventrolateral hypaxial group (muscles of ventrolateral body wall and limbs; innervated by ventral rami)

 

71

Spina bifida occulta

"Closed" neural tube defect

-occurs when left and right sclerotomes fail to fuse, causing a gap in the vertebral canal but NOT in the neural tube

72

Congenital scoliosis

-occurs when a slerotome from one side fails to divide or form completely

73

The trapezius can only _______ rotate the scapula

LATERALLY

74

What muscle produces shrugging motion?

Trapezius