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Flashcards in Quiz 3 Deck (10):
1

Quiz 3 is from Chap 8 of book on Qualitative Inquiry

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1) Compare and contrast quaNtitative inquiry (research) to quaLitative inquiry









2) Which one would involve observation and analysis of information to explore, understand issues, answer questions?

3) Which one explains "WHAT" ... which one explains "WHY"

4) Which one starts with a hypothesis, which one tries to observe to figure out what hypothesis is

5)
- Which one relies on heavy statistical proof
- Which one studies subjects in their natural environment

6) Review these aspects of QUALITATIVE research

1) QuaNtitative: Is focused on DATA, statistics, OBJECTIVITY. You quantify (numbers) people's results or opinions or surveys or interventions. It seeks to know the what, when, where (quantitative). Typically larger sample sizes.

QuaLitative: Exploratory research to gain understanding of the WHY and the HOW ... the opinions and attitudes. It includes focus groups, interviews, digging deeper into the hypothesis to find the why ... typically small sample sizes. It EXPLORES and discovers.

2) QuaLitative

3)
- What: quaNtitative
- Why: quaLitative

4)
- QuaNtitative: starts with hypothesis
- QuaLitative: observes to determine what hypothesis will be

5)
- QuaNtitative
- QuaLitative

6)
- Takes a LEARNING role
- Focuses on the individual
- Study phenomena or people in natural environment (vs. a lab)
- (More) Unstructured study designs and flexibility
- Collects detailed descriptive data to find the "why"
- Doesn't take data to generalize to everyone, but seeks to understand behaviors within the context or situation / enviornment
- Observe to know what hypothesis would be
- More time-intensive since the researcher is constantly observing, documenting, and analyzing
- Interviews
- More subjective
- Requires coding and writing down all responses from interviews ... so takes longer (but smaller sample sizes).
- Qualitative information seeks to provide
unique insights, understanding and explanation –
it is not to be generalized.

3

1) QuaLitative inquiry is also referred to as:

1A) The answer to #1 ? above ... what does that mean:


2) T or F: Qualitative inquiry is used more in medicine than in social sciences?

3) *** T or F: QuaLitative inquiry leads to new theory and hypothesis, whereas quaNtitative inquiry and data provides support to answer questions about existing theory

4)
- Out of quantitative or qualitative inquiry, which results would be described with numbers and which with words?

1) Interpretivism

1A) To understand the meaning of an experience / individual, one must understand the phenomena being studied in the context of the setting.

2) False. Qualitativism is about more subjectivity than objectivity.

3) TRUE ***



4)
- QuaNtitative: numbers
- QuaLitative: words

4

1) *** QuaNtitative research will focus on what key research methods:


1) *** QuaLitative research will focus on what key research methods:

1)
- Internal validity
- External validity
- Reliability

2)
- Credibility
- Dependability
- Confirmability
- Transferability

5

1) What are the methods of qualitative inquiry (data collection), and explain each:

1)
- Grounded Theory: Generate a theory from data collection (it's "grounded" in the research or data collection)
- Case Study: Study a single person, group, institution. Researcher does first hand observations, interviews, or other forms of data collection.
- Interviews: Most common instrument for qualitative data collection.
- Observation: Observe
- Participant Observation: Researcher participates in the group's activities to get first hand observation of what they do. It's good, but researcher might get too involved and attached and lose objectivity.
- Artifact Analysis: Evaluate the written sources on topic being researched.
- Others: survey's, questionaire's, surveys (as long as they are OPEN-ENDED questions and give personalized responses rather than objective numeric responses).

6

1) What is Phenomenology:


2) What is Ethnography:


3) What is Symbolic Interactionism:



4) What is Systems Theory Approach:

1) Refers to how objects and events ("phenomena") are perceived or understood in the human consciousness. How people describe things about what they experience.

2) Study of a group or culture. The scientific description of the customs of individual peoples and cultures.

3) Humans tend to do things on the basis of other peoples thinking. How people give meaning or do things based on interactions with others.

4) How organizations operate and how policy is formed and executed.

7

1) Validity in quaLitative research is:

2) From #1 above, what does it mean


3) What is something researchers to do increase credibility

4) What is triangulation



5) Reliability of qualitative research is:


6) From #5 above, it means what:



7) Methods researchers use to increase dependability:

1) Credibility

2) Credibility is based on a set of standards by which the honesty, accuracy, and dependability of the data can be judged.

3) Triangulation

4) Where researcher uses multiple methods to collect data (interviews, questionaires, data sources, multiple researchers, etc. to collect the data. Credibility is increased when SIMILAR RESULTS are produced from MULTIPLE METHODS.

5) Dependability

6) Reliability means repeatability ... if findings are repeated, it is reliable (so in qualitative research, reliability is dependability). Dependability = consistency.

7) Ask same ?'s to number of people, interviewing same people again, taking good notes

8

What is coding?

Basically after you have done qualitative research and collected and analyzed the data, you need to categorize it and write it down. The categorizing it and writing it down in those categories is CODING.

9

From Quiz:

1) How are qualitative inquiry results expressed?

2) Which qualitative inquiry approach studies groups or cultures via immersion of researcher in that environment?



1) WORDS

2) Ethnography

10

In class we reviewed the article: "Physical Therapist Students’ Development of Diagnostic Reasoning"

Here are the main points:

- Right now there is NOT much literature out there about DPT students' clinical reasoning skills, so this was a qualitative research study on that.
- The study looked at 6 students throughout their DPT program, and post-clinical and tried to find out what their clinical reasoning was.
- They did open coding where they used set headings from APTA website.
- With triangulation: they looked at notes, did a focus group recap, used a 'think aloud' type model to get inside head of learner, and had a 2nd independent group code it as well (back it up).
- Clinical reasoning developed throughout the program where at first they looked at anatomy (muscle or nerve), where as they progressed it looked at more system wide and functional abilities. Starts as analytical and deductive approach, develops further in program.
- Overtime, students developed from looking at the 'what' to the 'why'
- Limitations: very controlled, simulation environment, all females, only 6 participants, and students from only one program.