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Flashcards in Quiz 6 Deck (30):

What is Oral Rehydration Therapy and why is it so effective?

*Diarrheal salt loss cannot be corrected by drinking salt walter.
*More fluid pulled from body into intestine.
*If added sufar to salt-sugar crosses intestinal lining, pulls salt into the body.
*Less painful, less invasive, less expensive, and easier to provide,


What roles do maternal child health centers play in the developing world? Explain and give examples.

They give children in developing worlds immunization against measles, and other disease.
They monitor child development
Oral rehydration therapy
Promote breast feeding
Nutrition education and family planning.


What are some of the obstacles to the use of baby formula in developing countries?

Water supply is sometimes contaminated with human excrement.
Household hygiene is poor.
No refrigerator
Wood stove
Nothing to clean the bottle with
Uneducated mothers


In the video on Gendercide in India, what happened to the two girls at the end of the movie? What was the problem?

The two girls were pushed down a staircase by their grandmother.
The problem was that the family wanted boys and could only afford to raise 1 girl. The women had 2 girls, the family tried to kill one.


From the Haiti News story and video, what is Supplementary Plumpy (similar to Medica Momba), and how is it fortified to make RUSF? Explain.

A ready to use food like peanut butter that comes in sachets.
Doesn't spoil (can be kept in adverse conditions)
No need for firewood
Consist of peanuts, powdered milk, sugar, oil, added vitamins, and minerals manufactured in the U.S


In the Video Women Shackled, what happened to the second girl at the end of the movie? What are the problems associated with second girls?

The girl was killed by her father the day she was born.
Second girls pose a burden to the family because it required money and resources in order to the family to raise them. If the family does not have enough resources or money, they will be poor.


What is Leathers and Foster's argument for the importance of a fundamental right to food as opposed to only a moral responsibility to help the poor? Explain.

Right to food
Included in international convenant on economic, social, and cultural rights.
Now must address hunger issues.
Protect fundamental rights of society.
Rights are taken very seriously-> absolute entitlement, non-negotiable, would require government to act to prevent hunger.


What are marginal costs and benefits in an economic policy decision? Explain.

For 1% increase in cost, what is the increase in benefits?
Ideal decision: where marginal costs=marginal benefits.
Free market will allocate resources optimally but without concerns for social cost and environmental cost.


What are externalities in an economic policy decision? Give an example.

- Costs and benefits sometimes go to people outside the market transaction.
o Should wealthy benefit from costs borne?
By the poor?
• Exploitation = externality
By the environment?
o To feed hungry has indirect benefit to wealthy
We feel better = externality
No market for this


Why does transferring money from the wealthy to the poor drive inflation? Explain.

- If one rupee was taken from top 5% in India
o Reduces food demand by 0.003 rupees
- If government gives the rupee to the poor in bottom 20%
o Increases food demand by 0.58 rupees
- Therefore inflationary
- Market economy removes some of the benefit


Why might debt forgiveness be an effective form of foreign aid? Explain.

- Forgiving 3rd world debt would
o Help countries become self-sufficient.
- Honduras annual debt payments
o Exceed amount spent on health and education combined
- Total debt payments
o Greater than foreign aid and foreign investment combined


What macroeconomic policies help to promote growth of an economy? Explain.

- Objectives
o Low inflation
o Encourage savings
- Keep central bank out of political process
o More confidence in savings
o Low budget deficits
- Prevents printing more money and inflation
- Reduces borrowing by governments
o Stable exchange rates
- Attract foreign investors


What are some of the criticisms of globalization? Explain.

- Policies encourage low wages, poor working conditions, poor environmental quality
- Fiscal policies imposed by IMF reduce health programs, reduce education, reduce poverty alleviation programs
- IMF policies are antidemocratic
o IMF can countermand decisions by democratic governments
- Multinational corporations benefit
o At expense of ordinary people


In Globalization is Good, what policies did Taiwan follow after WWII to jump-start modernization and industrialization? Explain.

- Land Reform Policies
o Government began buying land and giving it to people


Explain the Food First position on the free market. What are the problems? Who benefits? Who is hurt, and why?

- Free Market responds to money not people.
- As poor get poorer and are pushed from land
o They have even less impact on markets
- Their needs for food do not register
- The market responds to the needs of the wealthy
o To produce luxury goods


What is structural adjustment, and what does Food First say were the problems with it? Explain.

They are the loans given between the 1980's-90's form the World Bank & International Monetary Fund. The goal was to make developing countries efficient, competitive and involved.
- Problems: gap between rich and poor widened as economic power concentrated on the rich. Poverty and hunger escalated. Local farmers were drive out of business due to cheap imported grain. Benefits of institutions and resources transferred from public to private businesses.


What does Food First say needs to happen for the free market to feed the hungry? How will government be involved and why?

- Government and Market must work together to end hunger
- Market by itself will lead to concentration of wealth and increased hunger
- Government by itself without market leads to
o Inefficiency
o Lack of motivation
o Low production
o Ex. Soviet Russia


Summarize War on Want's position on the WTO from the video. What do they say is wrong, and who is benefiting?

- China is benefitting by "aiding" Africa, but they are basically taking over


In "Globalization is Good" what are the positive effects of the multinationals, such as Nike, in Vietnam? Explain

- Provides jobs for the poor in a clean work facility


Compare and contrast the free trade principle of comparative advantage with the principles of fair trade. How does fair trade benefit small farmers?

-Comparative Advantage
•Each country exports what it produces best
•Money used to import what it cannot grow
•This could alleviate hunger and poverty
- -Fair trade: support fair export prices for small producers in developing countries through co-ops: coffee, tea, bananas, cocoa, mangos, pineapples, crafts


What is "slash and burn" economics according to Food First? Explain.

•Large export farming operations set up in a place for a few years:
•Melons in Mexico: 7 years before unprofitable
-Overused chemicals
-Increased pest resistance
-Increased wages
•Pullout caused economy to slump
•Cheap for another multinational to come in
•Cycle leaves economy and ecology in decline


Explain what Food First calls "bubble up economics". What is the advantage of poor countries closing their borders according to this model?

•After WWII, Japan, Taiwan, Korea huge economic growth
•No Free Trade
•Prohibit ited food imports, direct foreign investment
•Land R redistribution
•Government subsidies and tariff protection of domestic manufacturing
•Incomes and purchasing power of poor peasants and workers raised:
•Workers and peasants became strong domestic market
•Aftermarket strong, opened borders


What are the main policies that can hasten demographic transition? Explain

•Increase income
-But initially may have more children
•Increase Education
-Especially of women: Increases employment, increases family planning
•Increase Health Care
-Reduces infant mortality, thus need to have fewer children


Compare and contrast the disincentive for having children in Tea Estates and the One Child policy in China.

•Tea Estates, India: Maternity and child benefits paid by Tea Estate, but mothers receive retirement for each month do not have children
-Retirement account is charged if 3 or more children have
•China one child policy: if sign contract to have only one child, receive Glory Certificate: priority child care, priority medical care, priority admission to schools, increased income, larger housing
-If have 2 kids: must return benefits, income reduced
-If have 3 kids: increased sanctions


Develop an argument to answer the question: Does the U.S. feed the world? Use statistics to back up your argument.

The US does feed the World. The US is the number one producer of corn and soybeans and almost 50% of all wheat is exported. These are basic crops which are used to make many things from fuel to makeup and diapers. The exports from the US are certainly important for the rest of the world even though China is currently the leader of shared global agricultural production.


From the videos on China in Africa, what is China doing in Africa? What are their long term objectives? Explain.

- China is funding African countries with supplies and creating infrastructure.
- People believe that in the future, there will be competition for commodities in Africa from western nations but since China is already present in Africa, it would have the upper hand.
- People think that China is colonizing Africa for a future resource war


What are 4 strategies that are used to deliver food subsidies to people? Explain.

Donor countries: with burdensome surpluses
-Donors: directly feed famine victims
-Exporters: farmers, food distributors, input suppliers, shippers
-Developing countries: military, industry, politicians


What do Leathers and Foster say are 4 big problems with direct food aid given from one country to another?

Shipping costs high: 89% value of the food
-Medical care more critical
-Not self-sustaining
-Food sometimes used as cash: children don't benefit
-Depresses farm prices in country: disincentive to agriculture


In the movie "A Question of Aid" how was aid used differently in Kerala and in Bangladesh? Who did it benefit? What were the consequences of that? Explain

-In Kerala, what little food they have is shared more equally. Children end up healthier. Nursery school from ages 3-5 is free and they learn things like the alphabet there. Then they continue with their education
- Kids in Bangladesh often times can't go to school and learn because they have siblings to take care of.


In the movie "A Question of Aid" what policies worked together to empower women, lower the fertility rate and to improve the quality of life for the people in Kerala? Explain.

- Free health care for everyone. They have birth control. Population reduced by 35%.Women have learned to use these facilities because when they go to the hospital it is free. They don't want to have a lot of children because they know if they have too many, they won't be able to properly support them.