R6 - Radioactivity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in R6 - Radioactivity Deck (13):
1

What is at the centre of every atom?

A nucleus

2

What does the nucleus contain?

Protons and neutrons - they make up most of the mass of the atom but take up virtually no space

3

What charge are electrons?

Negatively charged - very small

4

What do electrons do?

Move around the outsize of the atom - there path takes up a lot of space giving the atom its overall size

5

What do the number of protons equal?

The atomic number

6

What do the protons and neutrons equal to?

The mass number

7

What are isotopes?

Atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons

8

What are the two isotopes of carbon?

Carbon-12 and Carbon-14 (Carbon-14 has two more neutrons than 'normal' Carbon-12)

9

What number do the top and bottom numbers of an element represent (when drawing an isotope)

Top - mass number
Bottom - atomic number

10

Usually each element has one or two stable isotopes. What are the other isotopes?

Unstable - they tend to be radioactive so decays and emits radiation (eg Carbon-14)

11

What kind of process In radioactive decay?

A random process - each nucleus decays spontaneously and is completely unaffected by physical conditions like temperature

12

What does a nucleus split into when it decays?

Three types of radiation - alpha, beta and gamma - in the process the nucleus often changes into a new element

13

Give examples of background radiation

- Rocks/Soil/Food/Air
- Cosmic rays
- Fallout from nuclear explosions
- Nuclear waste