R6 - The Types Of Radioactivity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in R6 - The Types Of Radioactivity Deck (23):
1

What are the three type of ionising radiation?

Alpha, beta and gamma

2

What does nuclear radiation cause?

Ionisation - by bashing into atoms and knocking electrons off

3

What happens to atoms with no overall charge during ionisation?

They are turned into ions (which are charged)

4

The further the radiation can penetrate before hitting an atom and getting stopped...

The less damage it will do along the way so the less ionising

5

How can you detect ionising radiation?

Photographic film or Geiger-Muller detector

6

What are alpha particles?

Helium nuclei - (4H)
2

7

What are alpha particles made up of?

2 protons and 2 neutrons - they are big, heavy and slow moving

8

Do aloha particles penetrate far into materials?

No - they are stopped quickly

9

What makes alpha particles strongly ionising?

There size which means they bash into a lot of atoms and knock off electrons before they slow down, which creates a lot of ions

10

Why are alpha particles deflected by electric and magnetic fields?

They are positively electrically charged

11

What does emitting an alpha particle decrease?

The atomic number by 2 and the mass number by 4

12

What are beta particles?

Electrons - emitted when a neutron turns into a proton and an electron

13

What happens to the atomic and mass numbers in a beta particle?

The atomic number increase by 1 and the mass number stays the same (0 e-)
-1

14

Give 3 facts about beta particles?

- They move quite fast (quite small)
- They penetrate moderately
- They are moderately ionising
- They are negatively charged so deflected by an electric/magnetic field

15

What are gamma rays?

EM waves with a very short wave that have no mass and are just energy

16

How far can gamma rays penetrate?

A long way through materials without being stopped so they are weakly ionising because they tend to pass through rather than collide with atoms

17

How comes gamma rays are not deflected by electric or magnetic fields?

They have no charge

18

When do gamma emissions happen?

After beta or alpha decay

19

Do gamma rays have an effect on atomic and mass numbers?

No - if a nucleus has excess energy, it looses this energy by emitting a gamma ray

20

How can you identify the type of ionising radiation?

By its penetrating power

21

Alpha particles are stopped by...

Paper, skin or a few centimetres of air

22

Beta particles are stopped by...

Thin metal like aluminium

23

Gamma rays are stopped by...

Thick lead or very thick concrete