Flashcards in Race and rights Deck (25)
African Americans make up approximately what proportion of the US population?
What proportion of the US population will Hispanics make up by 2050?
What did the 13th Amendment do?
Made slavery unconstitutional.
Which Amendment contains the "equal protection" clause? Give two prominent cases in which it has been used.
14th; Brown v Board of Education of Topeka 1954 (segregation in schools) and Obergefell v Hodges 2015 (gay marriage).
Why is the 14th Amendment's promise of citizenship for "all persons born or naturalised in the US" problematic for some?
Because in theory it confers citizenship on US-born children of illegal immigrants.
The 15th Amendment guaranteed what?
The right to vote to all citizens.
Together, the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments are known as what?
The Reconstruction Amendments.
What was the key ruling in Plessy v Ferguson 1896?
That the doctrine of "separate but equal" was not unconstitutional.
Give the years (all 1960s) of the two Civil Rights Acts and the Voting Rights Act
1964, 1968, and 1965.
Give three requirements of the Civil Rights Act 1964.
1. More difficult for states to use ploys such as a literacy test as a prerequisite for being allowed to vote.
2. Barred discrimination in public accommodation, inc hotels and restaurants.
3. Allowed the federal govt to withhold funding from state or local govt programmes that were discriminatory.
How many members of Congress are from ethnic minority backgrounds?
Which President first secured the black vote for the Dems, and through which group of policies?
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR); the New Deal.
What percentage of African Americans voted Democrat in a) 2008 and b) 2016?
What percentage of Hispanics voted Democrat in 2016?
Who was the first black member of the Cabinet, when was he appointed, to which post, and who holds it now?
Robert Weaver, 1966, Housing and Urban Development, Ben Carson.
In 2013, of whom did Obama say "... could have been me"?
Regents of the University of California v Bakke 1978 said the university's practice of reserving 16 of its 100 medical school places for non-whites violated which part of which amendment?
The equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment.
After which case did Sandra Day O'Connor say that affirmative action must be "narrowly tailored", and what did Bill Clinton say about it?
Adarand v Pena 1995; "mend it don't end it."
Gratz v Bollinger 2003 said the University of Michigan's affirmative action-based admission programme was:
Grutter v Bollinger 2003 said that the University of Michigan Law School's admissions policy was fine, because:
it offered a more individualised approach when considering applicants' racial profile.
In Grutter v Bollinger 2003, how did Clarence Thomas describe racial diversity programmes?
"The faddish slogan of the cognoscenti."
In Grutter v Bollinger 2003, what hope did Sandra Day O'Connor express?
That affirmative action would no longer be needed in such cases in 25 years.
According to Chief Justice Roberts, the best way to stop discriminating on the basis of race is to: (and in which case did he say it?)
stop discriminating on the basis of race; Parents Involved v Seattle School District 2007.
Who famously wrote an amicus brief in Fisher v Texas 2016, and on which side?
Obama; University of Texas.