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Medical physics 2: Radiation Safety > Radiation Emergency Preparedness > Flashcards

Flashcards in Radiation Emergency Preparedness Deck (27)
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Outline the 1-5 Source Categories

Cat1: most dangerous e.g. medical teletherapy, gamma knife
Cat2: industrial radiography sources, high/medium dose rate brachytherapy
Cat3&4: density moisture gauges, low dose rate brachytherapy
Cat5: Any practice with A/D < 0.01 (excluding cat 1-4 sources); includes some HASS sources


How are sources categorised?

Using A/D and look up tables

A = source activity
D = activity at which the source becomes dangerous


What are the source security groups ?

Minimum security: Group D excludes HASS, req contingency plans

Security Groups A-C:

- Deter/Detect/Delay
- Police / Intruder alarms
- Supervision for mobile sources.


Outline REPPIR

The Radiation (Emergency Preparedness and Public Information) Regulations 2001

A framework for emergency preparedness to ensure the public is:

- Properly informed at prepared in case a rad events occur.
- Provided with info in a rad emergency


REPPIR Duty holders

Operators of radiation work premise

Transporters of RAS through a public place (non standard transport)

Local Authorities

Employers of people who could intervene in a rad emergency


When does REPPIR apply?

Compare A/D values for summed quantities

Exemptions: Non dispersible sources, RAS in special from RAM, RAS in type b or c packages.


Documents required for REPPIR?

HIRE risk assessment(Haz Identification and Risk Eval) report for non-nuclear : send to hse
Nuclear send to: nuc install inspector (NI)


Duties if REPPIR applies

HIRE Risk assessment

If incident is reasonable forseeable:

1) emergency preparedness (operators & LAs - make & practice contingency plans)

2)providing public information (LAs – prior to & in an emergency)

3)notifying emergency dose levels (not limits) to HSE


REPPIR local authority responsibilities

Prep an off-site emergency plan

Arrange to provide information to the public in a rad emergency


REPPIR employer responsibilities

Prep staff for emergency exposure (provide info)


What is an emergency exposre?

An exposure which exceeds the schedule 3 dose limits

usually only received by emergency staff


What are the emergency exposure limits?

ED:100 mSv, Skin Equiv Dose: 1000 mSv, Eye Equiv Dose: 300 mSv

Provisions for life saving:
Whole body dose: 500 mGy, Dose to skin: 5000 mGy.


How does REPPIR apply to an international incident?

The Nuclear Emergency Planning Liaison Group (NEPLG):

Brings together organisations involved in off-site nuclear emergency planning such as local authorities, government bodies and NHS emergency response network


What is NAIR?

National Arrangements for Incidents involving Radioactivity

Purpose: to protect the public from hazards arising from the use and transport of RAM. (excl. terrorism)

Combines CRCE and HSE

Assists emergency services


What is the stage 1 NAIR response?

Respondent is brief by civil nuclear constabulatory

Assesses hazard / presence

Provides tech/rad safety advice

Advises on escalation to stage 2

Not used for: terror or large scale decontamination/ recovery events


What is the NAIR stage 2 response?

Provides resources for tackling the incident - via small team of experts


Examples of NAIR Stage 2 events

Transport incident
Lost sources
Damaged sources
Empty radioactive storage container found
Terror incidents - before terror activity suspected


Types of RAM packaging under CDG

Exempted: Below excepted activity

Excepted: Above exempted but below type A

Type A: designed for normal transport, max surface dose =2mSv/h up to =10mSv/h under executive use

Type B: able to survive severe accidents same surface rates, large drum for example. Req cert from DfT or NRC


Describe emergency responder monitoring

2008 Policy Change: “Knowingly” sending emergency responders towards radiation

Display accumulated dose ONCE > 100 μSv/h
Alarm at dose rates ≥ 100 μSv/h
Alarm when accumulated dose reaches 5 mSv & 100 mSv


Outline EPRR

National arrangements for health Emergency Preparedness, Resilience and Response (EPRR):

As a series of statutory responsibilities under the Civil Contingencies Act (2004). This requires NHS-funded organisations to maintain a robust capability (not capacity) to plan for, and respond to, incidents or emergencies that could impact on health or services to patients.


What is HART?

Hazardous area response teams

Specially recruited and trained personnel to provide the ambulance response to major incidents e.g. CBRN

Provide triage at major events


What are acute trusts?

ALL hospitals with major A&E facilities MUST have plans to deal with potentially contaminated and/or irradiated casualties.


What are the radiation response requirements for acute trusts?

Plans should include:
treatment of life-threatening injury to take priority over decontamination or radiation monitoring
radiation hazards & risks
control measures (prevention of contamination spread)
radiation monitoring
access to specialist support (Medical Physics) where available


Describe an example radiation response plan

Notification & Cascade
Muster and dispatch a radiation personal monitoring response team (plan relief rota)
Transportation of suitable radiation monitors PLUS additional essential items
Pre-identified or temporary RMU sites
Managing personal radiation monitoring activities
Record forms
Advice to monitees


What are the 3 stages of emergency contamination monitoring?

Lead by rad mon team leader:

Stage 1: Triage - hand held monitoring at 30 cm
Stage2: Detailed monitoring, hand-held at 5cm
Stage3: Internal contam-monitoring - thyroid for nuclear + dose-rate monitoring


What do RMU units look for after 4 hours, 24 hours ?

Radiation monitoring units:
4hr surface contam, people still in same clothes
24hr internal contam - surface cleaned off


What are the 5 regulations for emergency prep?

IRR17/EPR16/RSA93: Security of RAM
CDG2009: Consignor/carrier responsibilites
REPPIR2001 - Operator action plans
- off site action plans
NAIR: stage 1 responders and specialist rad monitoring advice/support