Radiation Protection / Radiobiology 2 Flashcards Preview

FINALS - SPRING 2016 > Radiation Protection / Radiobiology 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Radiation Protection / Radiobiology 2 Deck (120):
1

Working habits and conditions of personnel can be assessed over a designated period of time. 3 examples =

Monthly
Quarterly
Yearly

2

What 3 work areas typically have higher readings?

Fluoro
Portables
Interventionals

3

Wear a monitor at collar to monitor ____ and ____

Thyroid
Eye dose

4

If 2 devices are worn, "hot" = _____ .... And "cold" = _____

Hot = on collar
Cold = at waist under apron

5

Wear device at ______ to monitor thyroid and eye dose

Collar

6

True or false: Pregnant workers do not have to "declare" pregnancy to get an additional badge

False. They HAVE to declare pregnancy first then they will receive a second badge

7

______ or ______ badges should be worn if hands are frequently near primary beam

TLD
Finger

8

Nuclear Medicine Technologists should wear _____ or finger badges

TLD

9

True or false: HC facilities / education programs must maintain exposure records

True

10

Personnel monitors must be _____, _____, and _____.

Portable
Durable
Cost-efficient

11

Permanent record and can be re-read

Film badges

12

Come with a "control badge" for non-radiation area

Film badge

13

Newest, similar to film badge

Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dosimeters (OSL)

14

Uses Aluminum Oxide crystals that are stimulated by a laser to give off light that is read only once

Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dosimeter (OSL)

15

Looks like a pocket flashlight, can be read only once, not used much

Pocket Ionization chambers

16

Self-reading Pocket Ionization chambers are for instant ___________.

Dose reading

17

Non self-reading Pocket Ionization chambers require a ...

Reading device

18

Uses Lithium Fluoride crystals that give off light when heated, read only once, responds most like human tissue

Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD)

19

_________ and/or ________ reviews reports and councils employees if necessary

Radiation Safety Officer (RSO)
Health Physicist

20

Area monitoring done with radiation survey instruments must be _____ and _________

Durable
Easy to carry

21

Tube which indicates presence/absence of radiation

Geiger-Muller Tuber (GM Tube)

22

Gas filled survey instrument

Cutie Pie

23

RSO

Radiation Safety Officer

24

Erythema

Skin reddening

25

Epilation / alopecia

Hair loss

26

The higher the dose, the _____ the latent period

Shorter

27

Latent Period

Symptom-free period

28

Hematopoietic Syndrome

1-10 Gy (100-1,000 Rads)

29

Probable death within 6-8 weeks due to decrease in number of RBC, WBC, destroyed immune system

Hematopoietic Syndrome

30

GI syndrome

10-50 Gy (1,000-5,000 Rads)

31

Certain death within 3-10 days due to excessive diarrhea, vomiting, etc

GI Syndrome

32

CNS Syndrome

50+ Gy (5,000+ Rads)

33

Certain death within minutes to hours due to excessive cranial fluid

CNS Syndrome

34

Divisions of Acute Radiation Syndrome (3)

Hematopoietic
GI
CNS

35

Response stages of ARS (4)

Prodromal / initial stage
Latent period
Manifest illness
Recovery or death

36

Within hours >> nausea, vomiting

Prodromal or Initial Stage

37

About 1 week after Prodromal >> NO symptoms

Latent period

38

Full signs/symptoms appear

Manifest illness

39

In approx. 3 months from Prodromal Stage

Recovery or death

40

LD 50/30

Lethal dose that can kill 50% of the exposed population within 30 days

41

LD 50/30 range

3-4 Gy (300-400 Rads)

42

Rays of 10-20 kVp used to treat acne and ringworm

Grenz

43

German word for "boundary"

Grenz

44

Tabletop dose for routine fluoro cannot exceed

10 R/min

45

High-Level Control Fluoro (HLCF) cannot exceed

20 R/min

46

Temporary sterility may occur at gonadal dose of

2 Gy (200 Rads)

47

Permanent sterility may occur at gonadal dose of

5-6 Gy (500-600 Rads)

48

Whole body dose as low as _____ may cause a ,easer able hematologist depression

0.25 Gy (25 Rads)

49

Most radiosensitive cells in body

Lymphocytes

50

Least radioresitant cells in body

Lymphocytes

51

Least radioactive cells in body

Adult nerve cells

52

Most radioresitant cells in body

Adult nerve cells

53

Photomicrograph showing chromosomal "map"

Karotype

54

Cells are MOST radiosensitive during

Metaphase ("M")

55

Indirect effect damage occurs ___ of the time (due to radiolysis of water)

95%

56

Direct effect damage occurs ___ of the time

5%

57

Dose-response relationship curves

Linear
Non-linear
Threshold
Non-threshold

58

_______ and _______ are plotted on linear, non-threshold curves ("no safe limit")

Diagnostic
Leukemia

59

______ effects occur in the exposed individual

Somatic effects

60

________ effects are late somatic effects that can be directly related to the dose received

Deterministic

61

_______ effects are NOT likely to occur from diagnostic imaging procedures

Deterministic

62

Late somatic effects that do not have a threshold, occur in an arbitrary manner

Probabilistic

63

Late somatic effects have a severity that does not have a threshold

Probabilistic

64

Late somatic effects that occur in an arbitrary manner (no rhyme or reason)

Probabilistic

65

Late somatic effects at have a severity that does not depend on dose

Probabilistic

66

Late somatic effects that can occur after high or possibly low level exposures

Probabilistic

67

Extrapolation

Estimating the dose

68

Used by radiologists to establish dose-response curve for diagnostic exposures

Extrapolation

69

______ is the MOST important late stochastic somatic effect caused by exposure to ionizing radiation

Cancer

70

Mostly young women who suffered from bone cancer (radium chemically similar to calcium)

Radium watch dial painters

71

Early Uranium miners suffered from high incidences of ______ cancer

Lung

72

Infants treated for am enlarged thymus gland layer suffered from _____ cancer

Thyroid

73

Known places exposed to high levels of radiation include:

Hiroshima and Nagasaki (Japan 1945)
Chernobyl (Soviet Union 1986)

74

Genetic effects occur in

Offspring of exposed individual

75

2 examples of Genetic effects

Down's Syndrome
Microcephaly

76

If both parents possess the point mutation it is called:

Dominant

77

If only one parents possess the point mutation it is called

Recessive (probably won't be seen for several generations)

78

NCRP Report #___ and Publication #___ of ICRP are resources for EfD Limiting System

116
60

79

Radiation Hormesis

Hypothesis that a small amount of radiation is safe

80

Group that implements US Radiation Protection Policies

NCRP

81

Group that controls manufacture and use of radioactive substances

NRC

82

Group that regulates design/manufacture of products used in radiation industry

FDA

83

States that have agreements with NRC to enforce radiation regulations through their health departments

Agreement States

84

Both state and NRC enforce regulations

Non-Agreement States

85

Oversees daily operation and develops safety programs

Radiation Safety Officer

86

Act passed to protect public from hazards of unnecessary radiation exposure from electronic products (TVs, microwaves, etc.)

1968 Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act

87

Act that requires establishment of minimal standards for accreditation of education programs

Consumer-Patient Radiation Health and Safety Act of 1981

88

Biological somatic effects that exhibit a threshold dose below which the effect does not normally occur

Nonstochastic effects

89

Biologic somatic effects above which severity of damage increases as dose increases

Nonstochastic

90

Nonthreshold, randomly occurring somatic changes in which chance of occurrence of effect rather than severity of effect is proportional to dose

Stochastic effects

91

Annual EfD for occupational exposure

50 mSv (5 Rem)

92

Cumulative EfD

Age in years x 10 mSv (1 Rem)

93

Annual dose limit for lens of eye

150 mSv (15 Rem)

94

Annual dose limit for skin, hands, feet

500 mSv (50 Rem)

95

Annual EfD for general public infrequent exposure

5 mSv (0.5 Rem)

96

Dose for 17 year old student

1 mSv (0.1 Rem)

97

Fetal dose for gestational period

5 mSv (0.5 Rem)

98

Fetal dose monthly not to exceed

5 mSv (0.05 Rem)

99

Leakage radiation cannot exceed

100 mR/hr. At 1 meter

100

Control panel of fixed unit must be... (3)

Behind protective barrier
Allow you to see patient
Indicate when tube is energized and exposure is made

101

Tabletop must be as ________ as possible

Radiolucent

102

Equipment must have an _____ indicator

SID

103

True or false: Must have beam limiting confine useful beam

True

104

Beam Limiting device must have SSD of ___.

15"

105

Collimator alignment must be within _____ of SID

+/- 2%

106

If beam operates at 70 kV or above, must have at least ____mm. Al filtration to decrease patient skin dose

2.5

107

_____ added + _____ inherent

2.0
0.5

108

Used for screen-film combinations

Spectral matching

109

Used to improve quality of image but increase patient dose

Grids

110

Grids are used more frequently in ____ due to scatter sensitivity

CR

111

Use a ____ SSD for portables

12" (30 cm)

112

____ make up the matrix in DR

Pixels

113

Be aware of proper technique by checking "S" number to avoid ________

Overexposure ("Dose Creep")

114

______ produces greatest diagnostic dose

Fluoro

115

To reduce fluoro patient dose you should.... (4)

Minimize fluoro time
Use intermittent fluoro
Collimate
Use correct techniques

116

SSD for fixed fluoro

15" (38 cm.)

117

SSD for C-arm

12" (30 cm.)

118

Type of fluoro that results in highest fluoro dose so use intermittent and "last image hold"

Cinefluorography

119

Type of fluoro used for interventionals so monitor and document fluoro time

HLCF (High-Level-Control Fluoro)

120

Personnel monitoring is required whenever workers are likely to risk receiving ___% or more of annual occupational EfD limit of 50 mSv (5 Rem) / year

10