Flashcards in Radiology Deck (72)
Where do the kidneys lie in the retroperitoneum?
What is the level of the hila for each kidney?
Left -> L1
Right -> L1/L2
Why is the left renal vein longer than the right?
Passes across the aorta anteriorly to join to the right sided IVC
What CT phase is best to depict calculi?
After the injection of contrast, how long should be waited for the corticomedullary phase of CT?
After the injection of contrast, how long should be waited for the Nephrographic phase of CT?
After the injection of contrast, how long should be waited for the excretory phase of CT?
Which of the following is not a risk factor for contrast nephropathy:
- Renal impairment - +/- diabetes mellitus
- Congestive heart failure
- LV ejection fraction > 40%
- Acute MI (within 24 hours)
- Nephrotoxic drugs
LV ejection fraction > 40%
If it is
What are the hydration protocols to prevent contrast nephropathy?
1-1.5 ml/kg/h 0.9% normal saline 6-12hrs before and after contrast administration
Sodium bicarbonate instead of sodium chloride – urine alkalinization – prevention of oxygen free radicals
Bicarbonate administered from 1 hour pre-procedure to 6 hrs post
How do cysts appear on MRI in the following phases:
T1 -> Low/no signal
T2 -> High signal
What causes nephrogenic systemic sclerosis?
Exposure to gadolinium containing contrast medium used in MRI
What is a CT urogram used to image?
What is the commonest imaging modality for viewing the bladder?
What does a bladder USS allow us to see?
Internal calculi (if Calcium)
Bladder wall irregularities
What condition needs met for a bladder USS to be most useful?
Bladder must be full
What is cystography the gold standard investigation for?
Bladder wall tears
What tumour staging is CT best for?
What tumour staging is MRI best for?
Local staging of bladder wall tumours
What is a retrograde urethrogram used for?
What is the modality of choice for imaging the testes, uterus, ovaries and prostate?
What is the modality of choice for imaging infertility (tubal patency) and uterine abnormalities?
What is the mediastinum testis?
Infolding of tunic albuginea
What is the first line investigation is pyelonephritis or a gynaecological condition is thought to be the source of renal colic?
If a patient with renal colic is pregnant, what investigations should be done?
USS and/or MRI
Which calculi can be seen on x-ray?
What is the first line investigation for suspected renal colic?
Where do the ureters pass in relation to the psoas muscles?
Anteriorly over them
Where do the ureters descend in relation to the tips of the lumbar transverse processes?
How can we visualise the collecting systems, ureters and bladder on x-ray?
IV urogram (contrast)