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Year 2 - Renal (DP) > Radiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Radiology Deck (72)
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1

Where do the kidneys lie in the retroperitoneum?

Paravertebral gutters

2

What is the level of the hila for each kidney?

Left -> L1
Right -> L1/L2

3

Why is the left renal vein longer than the right?

Passes across the aorta anteriorly to join to the right sided IVC

4

What CT phase is best to depict calculi?

Pre-contrast

5

After the injection of contrast, how long should be waited for the corticomedullary phase of CT?

25-70 seconds

6

After the injection of contrast, how long should be waited for the Nephrographic phase of CT?

80-180 seconds

7

After the injection of contrast, how long should be waited for the excretory phase of CT?

5-15 minutes

8

Which of the following is not a risk factor for contrast nephropathy:
- Renal impairment - +/- diabetes mellitus
- Dehydration
- Congestive heart failure
- LV ejection fraction > 40%
- Acute MI (within 24 hours)
- Nephrotoxic drugs

LV ejection fraction > 40%
If it is

9

What are the hydration protocols to prevent contrast nephropathy?

1-1.5 ml/kg/h 0.9% normal saline 6-12hrs before and after contrast administration
Sodium bicarbonate instead of sodium chloride – urine alkalinization – prevention of oxygen free radicals
Bicarbonate administered from 1 hour pre-procedure to 6 hrs post

10

How do cysts appear on MRI in the following phases:
- T1
- T2

T1 -> Low/no signal
T2 -> High signal

11

What causes nephrogenic systemic sclerosis?

Exposure to gadolinium containing contrast medium used in MRI

12

What is a CT urogram used to image?

Collecting system
Ureters
Bladder

13

What is the commonest imaging modality for viewing the bladder?

USS

14

What does a bladder USS allow us to see?

Internal calculi (if Calcium)
Bladder wall irregularities
Diverticula

15

What condition needs met for a bladder USS to be most useful?

Bladder must be full

16

What is cystography the gold standard investigation for?

Bladder wall tears

17

What tumour staging is CT best for?

Nodal mets
Distant mets

18

What tumour staging is MRI best for?

Local staging of bladder wall tumours

19

What is a retrograde urethrogram used for?

Urethral:
- Strictures
- Trauma
- Diverticula

20

What is the modality of choice for imaging the testes, uterus, ovaries and prostate?

USS

21

What is the modality of choice for imaging infertility (tubal patency) and uterine abnormalities?

Hysterosalpingogram

22

What is the mediastinum testis?

Infolding of tunic albuginea

23

What is the first line investigation is pyelonephritis or a gynaecological condition is thought to be the source of renal colic?

USS

24

If a patient with renal colic is pregnant, what investigations should be done?

USS and/or MRI

25

Which calculi can be seen on x-ray?

Calcium (dense)

26

What is the first line investigation for suspected renal colic?

KUB X-ray

27

Where do the ureters pass in relation to the psoas muscles?

Anteriorly over them

28

Where do the ureters descend in relation to the tips of the lumbar transverse processes?

Anteriorly

29

How can we visualise the collecting systems, ureters and bladder on x-ray?

IV urogram (contrast)

30

Where do ureteric calculi often get stuck?

Pelviureteric junction
Pelvic brim
Vesicoureteric junction