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Year 2 - Renal (DP) > Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (146)
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1

What parts of the urinary tract are in the retroperitoneum?

Kidneys
Proximal ureters

2

What parts of the urinary tract are in the pelvis?

Distal ureters
Bladder
Proximal urethra

3

What part of the urinary tract is in the perineum?

Distal urethra

4

What is the kidney enclosed in (from superficial to deep)?

(Visceral peritoneum)
- Paranephric fat
- Renal/Deep fascia
- Perinephric fat
- Renal capsule

5

What muscles surround the kidney?

Posterior abdominal walls:
- Quadratus lumborum
Anterolateral abdominal wall:
- Obliques
- Transverse abdominis
Back

6

What muscle is the kidney anterior to?

Quadratus lumborum

7

What muscle is the kidney lateral to?

Psoas major

8

What vertebral levels is the right kidney at?

L1-L3

9

What vertebral levels is the left kidney at?

T12-L2

10

What ribs protect the kidneys?

11 + 12

11

What effects can rib fractures have on the kidneys?

Contusion and Laceration

12

What are the dimensions of a normal kidney?

Length ~12cm
Width ~6cm

13

How does a usual kidney feel?

Smooth
Regular
Firm

14

What does the right kidney lie posterior to?

Liver
2nd part of duodenum
Ascending colon
Right colic flexure

15

What sac does the hepatorenal recess lie in?

Greater sac

16

What does the left kidney lie posterior to?

Stomach
Tail of pancreas
Hilum of spleen
Splenic vessels

17

Which is more anterior, the renal arteries or veins?

Veins

18

Which is more anterior, common iliac arteries or veins?

Arteries

19

What lymph nodes does renal lymph flow to?

Lumbar nodes

20

Where are the lumbar lymph nodes?

Around abdominal aorta and IVC

21

Where does ureteric lymph flow to?

Lumbar and iliac nodes

22

Where are the iliac lymph nodes located?

Around the common, internal and external iliac vessels

23

Which of the following blood vessels doesn't supply the ureter:
- Renal artery
- Abdominal artery
- Common and iliac arteries
- Superior mesenteric artery
- Vesical artery

Superior mesenteric artery

24

What does the vesical artery supply?

Bladder

25

What tends to be the cause of an infra-renal AAA and renal artery stenosis?

Atherosclerosis

26

What tends to cause renal artery stenosis by occlusion?

Suprarenal AAA

27

What is the most common anatomical variation in the renal system? What is its incidence?

Bifid renal pelvis -> 1:10

28

What renal anatomical variation has an incidence of 1:25?

Bifid ureter and unilateral duplicated ureter

29

What are three less common anatomical variations of the renal and urinary systems? What are their incidences?

Horseshoe kidney -> 1:500
Retro-caval (behind IVC) ureter -> 1:1500
Ectopic pelvic kidney -> 1:2500

30

What can cause a solitary kidney?

Agenesis
Neophrectomy