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what are the 3 types of troponin and what does each do?

TnT binds it to tropomyosin; TnI inhibits binding of actin and myosin; TnC binds to calcium to reverse the inhibitory activity of TnI.


what are some lab values and signs of obstructive jaundice and why?

elevated direct (conjugated) bilirubin, elevated total bilirubin, decreased or negative urine and fecal urobilinogen, and pale stools- because the bile is stopped from entering the intestines, so no bile pigments like urobilin and urobilinogen in stool


do ion selective electrodes (ISEs) measure the activity, concentration, or both, of only one ion ?

Ion-selective electrodes for pH determinations are not completely ion-specific. All are sensitive to the ACTIVITY (NOT concentration) of some other ions to some extent, the most common one is sodium.


how many globin chains and heme groups does a molecule of hemoglobin have?

4 of each


what is the reaction rate dependent upon in a zero order reaction?

On the enzyme concentration alone, because there is excess substrate


what are 17-ketosteroids? In what specimen would they be tested for and how would levels differ btw males and females?

17-ketosteroids are metabolites of male steroid sex hormones, or androgens, and other hormones released by part of the adrenal gland in males and females, and in the testes in males.
Urine--> In males, 1/3 is from testes and the rest from adrenals; in females, all adrenal


give 3 reasons a drug may be good for therapeutic monitoring

1. narrow therapeutic range
2. drugs given chronically
3. highly protein-bound bc change in plasma proteins levels can affect


what is common in CSF protein electrophoresis of MS patients?

oligoclonal band that is not seen also in the serum


what chem analyte may be falsely elevated if an EDTA (purple) tube is drawn before the Red top (SST) or if blood from purple is added to the red, or tube is shaken aggressively?



which is more important to migration speed in electrophoresis: molecular weight, or net surface charge?

net surface charge; weight has a smaller role


what antigen is useful for monitoring treatment of GI cancers like colon cancer, but not for diagnosis bc it is often nonspecifically elevated

CEA- carcinoembryonic antigen